Knight of the Kingdom
By Conway B. Sonne*
Edited by Mary Jeanne Workman Jenness

Chapter I - Crossroads

His decision was made. He hitched up his tight-legged trousers, knotted a black tie at his throat, and threw the Sunday-best coat over his slight shoulders. Impatiently he jammed a few odd pieces into a battered suitcase for the overnight trip. He dashed a brush over his dark brown hair and in the mirror made a final inspection of his thin sensitive features.

Carefully he closed the door to his room and with long strides entered the street. A cold wind tossed snow flurries over his boots, and he tucked the heavy muffler snugly under his chin. The coach was waiting. He found a seat and surveyed the weary travelers who shifted uneasily and then braced themselves against the lurches and bumps of the stage. While the other passengers rubbed their chilled fingers and stamped the circulation back into their feet, the slim youth relaxed quietly and settled himself for the journey to Edinburgh.

As the horses clipped off the miles, he turned over in his mind the consequences of his step. He knew he was no martyr like the saints of old. Yet he felt that sacrifices were likely. He thought of his prospering bakery in Earlston, of his growing prestige in the community. He recalled with pleasure his close ties with The Relief Presbyterian Church and his Sunday School class. There was a girl too. He could have her. She was willing to follow him to the ends of the earth, but he felt that she could never fully accept his new faith nor adjust to the trials ahead. She had pleaded with him to change his mind.

The landscape of Scotland rolled by him. The neat farms, the snow blanketed pastures, lazy cows and sheep steaming in frozen barnyards, the stone-filled moors, and an occasional Scotch peasant were all part of the picture. There were small, rugged homes built of rock with tiled roofs, homes that were as sturdy as their occupants.

Richard Ballantyne was making a decision that would change the course of his life. He had already experienced much adversity in his twenty-three years and was no stranger to hard work or to the source where he might turn for help. His father, David Ballantyne, was "a serious man who stayed close to home. . . . He feared the Lord and loved the Scriptures. He was fond of repeating from memory whole chapters of the Bible to his children. . . . . He never failed to give thanks whenever he sat down to eat, and he would not as much as take a sip of water without first lifting his hat and saying grace."

David Ballantyne was big, sober, and pious. He was a striking man, towering six feet and weighing over two hundred pounds. Even beyond his graying years he was amazingly vigorous and powerful. Long sweating hours in the fields and a shrewd Scotch instinct for thrift had rewarded him with "considerable property in houses and lands" near the village of Earlston Scotland. Born in 1743, the son of William and Margaret Ballantyne, David was not one of the "titled gentry." He was brought up close to the soil and learned all the tricks a good farmer must know in working with his hands. He was, nevertheless, an influence in his community and respected for his success and integrity.

David's first wife, Cecilia Wallace, died at the dawn of the nineteenth century leaving him with three children . . . [who] had grown up . . . and David grew more and more lonely. He needed . . . a good wife and companion; and so despite his sixty years . . . [he won] the heart of a 'bonnie lass' of nineteen who came from the Highlands and spoke Gaelic. She was Ann, daughter of Peter and Ann Bannerman.

[To this union] children were born: Ann, Peter, Jane, and Robert, who died in infancy. Then at the sterling age of seventy-four David proudly announced . . . the birth of a fifth child, a son, who was duly christened Richard. It was August 26, 1817. Richard was born at Whitridgebog, in Roxburgshire County. It was a small place with scarcely a dozen families, located in the southeastern corner of Scotland.

Shortly after Richard was born, tragedy struck the Ballantynes. David had been asked by a friend to be a surety for his debts. The friend defaulted, and overnight trusting David lost the accumulated wealth of a lifetime. His property, which included about a hundred acres of good farm land . . . and five two-storied stone houses . . ., was sold at public auction; and he and his family "were turned out of doors with only a cow and a few articles of furniture." The man of wealth and position was reduced to a field hand in almost a twinkling of an eye: destitute, homeless, and penniless.

In this distressing situation he hired a small cot on a neighboring farm from the proprietor of which he received employment at common labor." The man of wealth and position was reduced to a field hand in almost a twinkling of an eye: destitute, homeless, and penniless. "But he bore his afflictions with great fortitude and patience, and his religion was a great solace to his feelings."

David lived eleven more years, working as a laborer as long as his strength remained. Two more children, Annie and James, were born to him . . . . At the age of eighty-six, [he] died in Springhall, near Kelso Scotland. . The night before his death, it is said a voice three times called to him, "David, David, come away."

After the death of her husband, Ann moved the family to Lightfield. Richard had attended school in Kelso for only a few years, but it soon became obvious he must earn his own way. At the age of seven he was herding his father's cows along Scotch paths and lanes. At ten he was a gardener to a wealthy Scotsman. At eleven he worked ten hours daily as a farm laborer for the munificent wage of ten cents a day. His sister Jane entered domestic service . . .; but the family burden was thrust largely upon Peter, the eldest son, who left home to work on a farm and send his entire earnings to his mother. He labored long hours, weakening himself by worry and overwork, until finally his health broke. He became a permanent invalid and was taken to Dumfries for medical care. His mother Ann then had to carry on alone with such help as her smaller children could give.

Ann was independent. She would rather starve than be an object of charity. Resourceful and shrewd, she squeezed out a fairly respectable existence for her children. For years she toiled, never once accepting public relief. She fought poverty with the grim determination of her Highland nature, filling the mouths of her children, patching and remaking their clothing, and sending them to church dressed "like little princes." . . . .

At the age of fourteen Richard was apprenticed to an Earlston baker, a Mr. Gray. For three years he learned to bake bread and cakes and rolls. During the third year of his service Gray promoted him to foreman of the establishment, and soon the sole management of the business was in his hands. Then with experience came opportunity. A baker by the name of Riddle from Kelso became interested in the rapid progress of the youngster. When Richard was released from his bond at the end of three years, Riddle offered him the foremanship of his large and prospering bakery; and so the graduate apprentice moved his mother and the children to Kelso. Two years he worked for Riddle, and then his former employer, Mr. Gray, died. Believing he could do better in a business of his own, Richard purchased the bakery from the widow for only $25. And so back to Earlston he took his family, and as he was not married, his sister Jane came to keep house for him and help in managing the new enterprise. For the first time in his life Richard felt the jingle of coins in his pocket and began to plan toward accumulating enough to free himself and his mother from the bands of poverty.

But strange things were beginning to happen to the young Scot. He had always been religious, having been baptized by sprinkling into the Relief Presbyterian Church in infancy, but more and more he felt a fire being kindled within him. At the age of eighteen his growing religious passion reached a crisis. He had been walking long before sunrise, as was his habit when meditating and searching his feelings about religion. [He said:]

I had a vision . . . of the glorious countenance of the Lord Jesus Christ. When this was given to me I was not praying for nor expecting any such gracious favor from God. But suddenly my eyes were open to see and my heart to feel that ineffable bliss which can only be given by the power of the Holy Ghost. I received no special instruction, only it seemed that the whole world was opened to my gaze, and I saw that all men from the highest to the beggar that sweeps the streets were all after their money from their quarter. The power of this vision made me so inexpressibly happy that I dreaded to come in contact with even my best friends, and for three days thereafter I sought communion with God in prayer, and sought earnestly for a continuance of the power of that blessed spirit whose favor seemed more to be desired and precious than all earthly things. But, notwithstanding my prayers, the effect of the vision gradually departed from me and I began to associate with my companions.

After this experience Richard redoubled his religious activity. When he was twenty-one, he became an elder in the Relief Presbyterian Church. Within a few years he was elected "Ruling Elder." . . .

In helping the pastor shepherd his flock, the ruling elder soon discovered that all was not well in the parish. He was disturbed at the appalling ignorance concerning the principles of Christ. He was even more disturbed when he observed the neglect of boys and girls who were growing up without being taught the things men had lived and died to preserve. When he brought this to the attention of the minister, he was encouraged to organize a Sunday School in a small farm village a few miles from Earlston where religious instruction had been particularly lacking. Overcoming a timidity springing from his inexperienced youth and slight formal education, he started the school and enrolled upwards of seventy-five boys and girls.

It was not long after the Sunday School was gaining momentum that two daughters of a wealthy farmer offered their teaching services. While he had hoped to carry the responsibility alone, he bowed before the superior education and accomplishments of the young ladies and resolved to improve his own learning. He worked hard to prepare himself more thoroughly for the instruction he wished to give. He spent a portion of each day in careful study of the Scriptures and in "humble and devout prayer to God." Soon questions began to annoy his thinking. When he felt that he could no longer ignore these embarrassing mental queries, he discussed with his pastor what appeared to him to be deviations from the original doctrine and ordinances of Christ. His ministerial friend admitted certain inadequacies and soberly proclaimed, "Well, Sir, we need a new organization." Richard's ripening criticism and spiritual uneasiness opened the door to his mind for the answers he was seeking.

While Richard was busily engaged in making a living from his cakes and rolls, there were persistent rumors of a new prophet raised up in America. These rumors aroused varying degrees of curiosity, disbelief, and hostility among the people of Scotland. At first Richard paid little attention to the stories that reached his ears; but as the questions concerning religion perplexed his soul, he became more alert to any enlightenment on the subject. Then the rumors became reality with the appearance in Edinburgh of an apostle of the new prophet. He was Elder Orson Pratt, and it was the year 1841.

Word of the activities of this missionary came to the young Scot in a letter from his sister. Other missionaries were soon traveling the country, and the inquiring Presbyterian searched for the answers his mind craved. For a full year he investigated the new Church. He laid the things he had heard before his pastor, but he found this man of the cloth had "no relish for them, but bitterly opposed them, saying they were all of the devil."

Finally Richard was converted . . . . "I was so convinced that Joseph Smith was a prophet," he testified, "and the Book of Mormon the word of God, and that if I did not accept it I would be damned."

[The decision to be baptized was made and now he was on his way to where] the North Sea juts into the waist of Scotland about 30 miles from Earlston.

Darkness had fallen when he drew up to a handful of people collected on the shore of the Firth of Forth near the town of Leigh. It was a beautiful moonlight night in December, 1842. A figure dressed in a long flowing cloak and a somber hat approached him.

Are you ready, Richard?"
Yes, Elder McCune."

Quickly changing his clothing he accompanied Elder Henry McCune and his companion to the water. A circle was formed by the group on the edge. A prayer, a hymn, and a brief service set the scene. From the shore the spectators witnessed a simple but ancient rite. Another hymn was sung as the shivering trio struggled to the stony beach. Handshaking and embraces followed. . . . "All nature seemed to be at peace," he later wrote. "To look at the broad expanse of waters, and to contemplate the mysteries of the unknown future that now lay before me, and if a picture thereof had been unfolded to me, what would I have seen?"

If a panorama of his life from this moment had passed before his eyes, he would have seen many strange and even terrifying things. He would have seen a life changed beyond his wildest dreams, a life that was to be filled with adventure and hazard at every turn, and a life that was to begin with this immersion in the sea beyond Edinburgh.

There comes a time for every man when a supreme decision must be made, and upon that decision he must be prepared to stand or fall. Such was Richard's baptism. It was the turning point in his life, and from that day his odyssey began. It was to take him to America and on to Nauvoo, from Nauvoo across the prairies to Utah, from Utah across the deserts to California, across the vast wastes of the Pacific to the mysterious land of India, back to England, and then over the plains a second time to the Great Salt Lake. Nor were his footsteps to halt there. He was to be hounded in the territory he helped civilize from one county to another before he could find peace.

He was yet to suffer kidnapping, mobbing, crop failures, the rigors of extreme climates, storms at sea, debility and disease, hunger, ostracism, and destitution of all kinds. These things were to be the price of conversion. Yet he would have done it again and again, for he was one of those rare souls who devote themselves to a cause so completely that doubt or fear would never rule the mind.

And so the young Scot turned his back on the sheltered recesses of convention and chose to pilot a course in a sea of uncertainty. It was a fearless choice, and he let his conscience like a compass direct him.

On the Sunday following his baptism he was confirmed a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints by Elder Charles Miller and ordained a Priest. On his way home from the service he floated in clouds of peace and happiness. "The Holy Ghost came upon me while I was riding in the stage coach, and my soul was satisfied of the goodness of God and with the confirmation I had received of the truth of the gospel."

Like Saul of Tarsus and the early Christian converts, Richard found himself at odds with his community. He had to separate himself from his former sect and the intimate association with its minister, divorce himself from the Sunday School he had organized in the village of Fawns, and endure the cold shoulders of once warm friends. Shortly after his own conversion his mother and his brothers and sisters joined the Church, and this one family stood alone in Earlston among people who hated this new religion. He wrote in his autobiography:

It seemed for awhile that my business would be broken up, and that we would be reduced to want. But I had counted the cost and was prepared for the changes that might come. I had no guarantee against poverty, and indeed, I expected nothing else. I had read of the cruel persecutions of the Saints in America and had prepared to suffer with them. The sequel will show, however, that the Lord was very gracious to us and that instead of losing all we had, my means increased and the next August I was enabled to settle up my business and find that I had enough to pay all my debts and emigrate my father's house to the land of Zion.

He was reluctant, however, to leave without making one more effort to bring his home town to a knowledge of the restored church . . . . [Though] many were interested there were no baptisms. [The villagers] said he was deluded.

Clothes, books, and household goods were packed in boxes and trunks. Richard roped the trunks with queer feelings of regret in leaving old faces and places and of excitement at the prospect of living in a new and strange land. He was going to the raw frontiers of America where the rejected and persecuted had found refuge. . . .

The converts took a stage to Lauder where Richard's older brother, William, lived with his family. William, like all of David's children, had become a Latter-day Saint, but nothing could induce him to leave his beloved land to come to America. From Lauder Richard sent his mother, Jane, and Annie on to Glasgow where they booked passage by boat to Liverpool, and he remained behind to do one more task.

He rode thoughtfully to Dumfries, where his invalid brother was hospitalized. He knew the constant care Peter would need, and facing the unknown future ahead Richard realized the going would not be smooth. But still he wanted to take Peter to America. Permission was granted, and Richard took his brother into a new life of sunlight and freedom. He accepted the responsibility of nursing Peter which was to extend over fifty years.

In Liverpool the family was reunited, and it was a happier reunion with Peter showing improvement. In a few days the Ballantynes boarded a ship with a large company of Latter-day Saints and set sail for New Orleans, and a new world.

Chapter II - A City Dies

The river boat churned up the Mississippi impatiently tooting its whistle at every scow and barge that crossed its course. It nosed its prow through tricky currents, around shifting sandbars and shoals, and between scattered islands. Up the winding river it crept under the watchful eye and expert hand of its pilot. Aboard this boat were immigrant Latter-day Saints eagerly awaiting the end of a long journey. These converts from the old World had lived on the water over two months, and now within a few hours would finally land at Nauvoo.

* * * *

The thoughts of each member of the Ballantyne family were colored by excitement and anxiety. There was much serious reflection. Unexpressed fears crowded into their minds. Yet it was understandable. They had traveled several thousand miles to a new country for a new religion. They had pulled up their roots, and in so doing had relied entirely upon their faith. They believed what they had been told about a prophet and a gathering. Now they were to find out for themselves.

Richard slipped his arm around the sloping shoulders of his mother and murmured, "We're here, Mother. We must thank God for a safe voyage."

Yes, my dear lad," replied Ann, whose Gaelic and Scottish accents quivered strangely with suppressed emotion. "Bid your last fareweel to the old country. This is a bonnie place. I dearly like the monie trees and the green fields, but I miss m' Scotland. Oh, how I wish your father . . . . Go fetch m'shawl, Richard." She turned quickly away.

The river boat pulled into the Nauvoo dock. On the bank a large crowd of cheering men, women, and children greeted the travelers. They surged forward clasping hands and embracing with genuine affection. Richard's eye singled out a striking, powerful man who was undoubtedly the leader. He was the Prophet Joseph Smith, and the founder of the new faith welcomed the newcomers into his fold. Here at last was the man they had come from the other side of the ocean to see and follow. There was no disappointment. The Prophet was all and more than they had expected. Joseph Smith looked like a prophet. He spoke like a prophet. He had the assurance and confidence of a prophet. In every word and action he bore the stamp of a prophet. Had there been any questions and apprehensions in Richard's mind, they now melted away.

On November 11, 1843, when this company of Latter-day Saints arrived, Nauvoo was an overgrown infant among the cities of America. In the short span of four years it had grown from a swamp to the largest city in Illinois with a population estimated as high as twenty thousand, dwarfing even Chicago and Springfield. It was undoubtedly one of the most beautiful spots in the nation, located on a sweeping bend of the Mississippi and fringed by the greenest of foliage. This monument to the industry and spirit of the Saints had been the toast of the country, but instead it became a kind of witch's cauldron of persecution and perfidy. Within two years it was to fall, never to rise again, another sinking star in the night of history.

Richard was amazed at the development and activity in Nauvoo. It was like an ant hill where order and bustle everywhere prevailed. From a prominent table overlooking the city rose the nearly-completed Nauvoo Temple. It stood like a silent guardian overseeing the settlement. Richard was struck by the well-planned farms, neat homes, and flourishing businesses. . . . These people are builders, he decided.

The first counsel I received after arriving at Nauvoo, was from Elder John Taylor in relation to my tithing and the business I should engage in; but not realizing the importance of being obedient in temporal matters, I took my own course and engaged in the milling business with a Brother Peter Slater at Lamoine, thirty miles east from Nauvoo. I moved my mother, sister Jane, and my brother Peter out here, and learned in less than twelve moths that it is a grievous thing to disregard the counsels of the servants of the Lord. I learned the treachery of men, to my sorrow, for it seemed as though every one was bent upon stripping us of all we had. However, we managed through the aid of an old gentleman to get back to Nauvoo among the Saints, and I have never since had a desire to mingle in other society.

In Nauvoo Richard Ballantyne was appointed manager of the Coach and Carriage Manufacturing Company. He directed the building of many of the conveyances which were to carry the pioneers across the plains to Utah. . . .

During this time he had been faithful and active in the Church. . . . [He was ordained an elder, then a seventy, and a then a high priest. He received his priesthood ordinances in the Nauvoo Temple.]

There had been a rash of rumors in the past year or two that some of the Church leaders were practicing a strange doctrine of "celestial marriage." While the rumors were persistent, Richard and most of the loyal Latter-day Saints were undisturbed. But incidents began to boil into one crisis after another. . . . In his journal he describes the reactions of a devoutly religious . . . Latter-day Saint of his time . . . . [and his usual response to distress:]

In the spring of 1844 Apostle John Taylor had invited me to dine with him and his family. After dinner he invited me to go to the printing office. When there, we went upstairs, and it seemed he had something to communicate, but did not know how to approach it, as he walked up and down the room several minutes before saying anything. At length, he came to my side and said, "Do you know that the Church allows a man to have more than one wife?" Being horrified at the mention of such a thing, I promptly answered, "No, I do not." "Well," said he, "it is so." At this confirmation of the fact, I was so shocked and appalled that I felt I could have dropped through the floor, in utter disgust. I thought such a practice savored of such abominable lewdness that it could not be possible that God would countenance it.

After answering me that "it was so" he said no more, neither said I anything to him; but he saw, no doubt, that I was greatly agitated and troubled.

I said nothing to any one regarding the matter; but next day being still greatly distressed, I repaired to the woods, on the high bluffs just below Nauvoo, and there I knelt before the Lord and asked him in the name of Jesus to show me whether this doctrine was true or false. My prayer was at once answered, and while still on my knees an open book was presented to the vision of my mind, and I read these words, contained in the prophecies of Isaiah:

In that day seven women shall take hold of one man, saying, We will eat our own bread and wear our own apparel, only let us be called by thy name, to take away our reproach. In that day shall the branch of the Lord be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and comely for them that are escaped of Israel. And it shall come to pass that he that is left in Zion, and he that remaineth in Jerusalem shall be called holy, even every one that is written among the living in Jerusalem.

After reading thus far the book disappeared from my sight and I was satisfied. What especially impressed me was the declaration that all in Zion and Jerusalem should be "called holy." This was just the reverse of what I had supposed, and ever after I was more deeply concerned about myself, and how I could be accounted worthy to mingle in the society of such people as the prophet here describes.

Within a short time his two sisters, Jane and Annie, became the plural wives of John Taylor.

A few moths before Hyrum Smith was murdered, Richard paid a visit to the Patriarch's home. The conversation turned to the future course of the Saints and where they might find refuge from their enemies. Hyrum stepped suddenly across the room and pointed to a place on a map hanging from the wall. "There beside that lake the Saints will build a city," he said firmly. He had pointed to the exact spot where Salt Lake City is now located.

In the weeks that followed, the persecution and hostility against the Latter-day Saints rose to fever pitch. Then came the stunning assassination of the Prophet and his brother. Shortly after the tragedy, Richard visited Carthage. He said of this trip,

It was while we were living at Doyle's Mill 36 miles east of Nauvoo that the Prophet and his brother, the Patriarch of the Church, were massacred in Carthage jail. A few days after the murder I went to Carthage to see Apostle John Taylor who was lying then in great distress. He and Willard Richards were in jail when the Prophet and Patriarch were murdered and four bullets were shot into John Taylor's body. I saw him in the Hamilton Hotel. The mob had not all left Carthage. In the room of the Wilson Hotel where I stayed there were about 300 stand of arms, rifles, and shot guns. The mob were going out and in all night, and if I slept I was not aware of it.

John Taylor's condition was at this time too critical to admit of his being moved; but in a few days thereafter he was taken to Nauvoo. The whole country around Carthage and Nauvoo was in a state of feverish excitement and fear. Scattering families huddled together for mutual protection in one house. The powers of evil darkened the atmosphere and a feeling of mingled horror and fear filled the hearts of the enemies of the Saints. They look for retaliation and revenge, but the counsel of the priesthood was for resignation and peace.

The Twelve Apostles hurried home from their missions abroad. There was a special conference of the Church at Nauvoo. Sidney Rigdon returned from his self-imposed retreat to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and asserted his claim to preside over the Church. Other factions sprang up scrambling for power and gain. It seemed to Richard that the Church would fall to pieces, for there was serious dissension among its membership. With anxiety he attended the historic gathering, but his fears soon evaporated. He saw Brigham Young electrify the congregation with an amazing transfiguration. Richard could scarcely believe his own eyes and ears. It was not Brigham's voice he heard. It was the voice of the Prophet Joseph Smith, and nothing could shake his testimony that Joseph's likeness shone forth in Brigham's face.

Under the leadership of Brigham Young, the Church began intensive preparations for the journey to the Rocky Mountains. As manager of the Coach and Carriage Manufacturing Company, Richard found himself very busy. Vehicles had to be built as quickly as possible, and his factory turned out wagons and carriages by the dozens for the desperate emigrants. On February 18, 1846, the first company crossed the Mississippi on the ice. Richard's sister Jane, who was now the wife of John Taylor, was in this group. Soon the main body of the Church had departed for Winter Quarters. Richard stayed behind to build more wagons and to wind up the printing business for John Taylor. His mother, his sister Annie, and Peter remained with him.

As soon as the Saints began their withdrawal, the mob laid siege to Nauvoo. The last devastating battle was on. The Saints could only fight a delaying action and save what property and household belongings they could cart off with them. During the heat of the bombardment, Richard climbed to the top of the blacksmith shop to obtain a better view of the enemy. His heart sank as he observed their merciless advances. Scarcely had he dropped again to the ground when a cannon ball tore out the top of the roof where he had been standing seconds before. With James Standing he once again narrowly escaped death when some mobocrats, concealed in a house, opened fire. Bullets spat around them, and a cannon ball passed overhead.

And so during the next few months Nauvoo was a dying city. Confusion and terror reigned. Most of the Latter-day Saints who remained behind were defenseless, disorganized, and scattered. Farmers who tried to harvest their crops before leaving were attacked by mobs and unmercifully beaten or worse. The outrages became so brutal that even non-Mormons tried to prevent further bloodshed. A few offenders were brought to trial, but the trials were a mockery. The wave of crime and plunder continued in full swing. In the midst of this seething period, Richard was swept into one of the most thrilling adventures of his life.

It was a hot and sultry morning in July. He was driving his wagon toward Nauvoo. With him were Phineas Young and his son, Brigham H., and James Standing. They had been to McQueen's Mill, twelve miles up the Mississippi north of Nauvoo. As Richard's health had been poor, he thought the ride with the Youngs to the mill would do him good. The Youngs needed the flour for the trip West and so Richard offered to take them in his wagon.

They had traveled about two miles below the mill and were entering the town of Pontoosuc. Suddenly they sensed that something was wrong. Their eyes fell on an unusual number of horses tied to the fence around the town square. Their suspicions aroused, the four men drove quietly through the town. At the outskirts their worst fears were confirmed. A woman standing on the porch of her home shrieked, "For God's sake, be off for the mobs in town."

Richard flicked the whip over the backs of his horses and drove swiftly for two more miles. Then he pulled to an abrupt halt. He unhitched and led the team to the Mississippi for a drink. As the four again harnessed the horses, they heard the pounding of hoofs. The sound rose like thunder upon them.

Richard's hand closed over the gun he always carried in the wagon. Phineas quick-wittedly snatched it from him and tossed it into the bushes, an act which perhaps saved their lives. About twenty horsemen descended upon the unarmed travelers. Leveling their cocked revolvers, the mob ordered surrender.

By what authority do you order us to surrender?" Richard angrily demanded.

With a vile oath a bearded ruffian thrust the muzzle of a pistol in Richard's face and snarled, "This is my authority."

The leader of the gang was a rough, foul-mouthed backwoodsman whose name was "Old Wimp." When Richard showed indignation at the capture, this vicious mobster drew his bowie knife and would have cut the Scotsman's throat had he not been restrained by several of the raiders.

After recovering Richard's rifle the mobbers hauled the captives back to the public square at Pontoosuc and exhibited them for some two hours to the jeering and cursing rabble. On the fringe of the crowd were women, and some of them mocked as heartlessly as the men. A few whisked their skirts about their ankles and fled more out of squeamishness than sympathy. Children watched with parents, and town officials were surprisingly indifferent.

Someone started a raucous chant that rose in a crescendo, "Mor-mons, Mor-mons, Mor-mons!" Soon a boisterous and savage glee seemed to possess the mob. It spread like a fever until men worked themselves into a frenzy of hatred. The derisive chant became a roar, and the mob became more and more irresponsible as bottles passed freely from mouth to mouth.

Finally before violence broke out the prisoners were taken to the wharf and lodged in a warehouse with another captive, James Herring, until dark. Here they learned that they were being held as hostages until two mobbers named McAuley and Brattle, who were awaiting trial in Nauvoo for lynching, were released. Word was sent to Nauvoo that unless the two men were freed the lives of the five Saints would be sacrificed. After sundown a dozen guards prodded them along a thicketed path into a lonely clearing in a forest, where the prisoners spent a sleepless and miserably cold night.

At dawn, shots and shouting were heard from the direction of Pontoosuc. The camp sprang to life. An order was given, and the kidnappers formed a small circle around their victims.

Hold on 'till I go see what causes this uproar," commanded "Old Wimp."In a half hour the mob chief returned with the report, "The Mormons are here." He said that bout two hundred Nauvoo legionnaires were in pursuit. It was afterwards learned that a well-armed company from Nauvoo in search of the missing men had taken the town by surprise before the inhabitants were awake.

Phineas Young, fearing the mob would become panic-stricken and massacre their prisoners, ran forward and caught "Old Wimp" by the arm. He pleaded for their lives.

If you'll follow me, I'll save you," growled the mob leader, unloosing a torrent of curses.

Again the party stumbled through the woods. During this time Richard was so ill and exhausted that he felt he could not take another step. Yet whenever he lagged behind, he was viciously jabbed with a bayonet.

The group hid in the daytime and marched at night over rough and trackless country. Once, after denying the prisoners water all day, the mob tried to force them to drink poisoned whiskey. Only Brigham H. Young tasted it, hoping to quench his thirst, and he became violently ill and temporarily blind. On another occasion the guards loaded and primed their weapons and prepared to shoot their captives but had to postpone their plan when a messenger brought news that the Mormons were only a half mile away. The mob also plotted to strangle them in their sleep, but the prisoners stayed awake all night and forestalled the design. One night was spent in a farmhouse of a man who gave his name as Logan, and Richard and his companions were imprisoned in a room which "was literally filled with wool." Another night was spent on a small island in the Mississippi among the nettles and mosquitoes.

In the meantime the pursuers from Nauvoo had discovered Richard's wagon and team with the flour. The game of hide and seek went on with the five men suffering severely from exposure and hunger.

Finally the prisoners were led into a secluded clearing and backed against a large tree. Their captors measured off fifty feet, stamped down an overgrowth of weeds between themselves and the condemned men, and grimly loaded their weapons. The captured Saints knew that at last they were to be shot in cold-blood.

Phineas Young again stepped forward. He begged "Old Wimp" to take his life and let the others go free, but his pleas brought nothing but curses.

Richard's thoughts flashed back to his mother, his sisters, and his afflicted brother. How would they make their way out West without him? Who would take care of them? These thoughts almost overcame him, but he steeled himself against any show of fear. He prayed.

The prisoners were placed in position. The rifles were ready. And then every head turned at the sound of a galloping horse. A lone rider broke through the forest on a foaming animal.

The Mormons are coming," he shouted.

Guilty faces stiffened with fear. Panic gripped the kidnappers. "Old Wimp" dashed forward and untied the hands of the five Mormons.

If you will save us, we will save you," he bargained.

Again the flight continued. Then "Old Wimp" and his men were relieved by new guards and returned to Carthage to make arrangements with the "killing company" to dispose of the prisoners.

Now was the chance to escape. The new guards were more friendly and less brutal than the other men. Phineas Young approached the leader and told him it was time for a showdown. He described the two-week captivity. He explained that McAuley and Brattle had been released, but the mob had failed to free their hostages as they had agreed. It was evident that "Old Wimp" had no intention of letting them leave alive. Now they were going home. Shoot if he wished, but they were going home. The guard captain, after verifying the things he had been told, suddenly sickened of the whole business. He told them they were free to go.

There was a remarkable change in the attitude of the mobbers. They immediately became kind and solicitous of the welfare of their prisoners. Several of the guards arranged for a wagon and drove them to Warsaw. Then they provided boats and rowed their former captives five miles up the Mississippi to a point near Nauvoo.

When "Old Wimp" heard if the escape, he collected his mob and in a rage set out in hot pursuit determined to kill the Mormons once and for all. He followed the escaped men up the Mississippi and almost recaptured them, but they managed to keep the sloughs between them and the mob until "Old Wimp" gave up the chase.

Ann met her son as he approached the house. She looked old and haggard and could think of nothing but that Richard was again safe. His broken-hearted mother and sister Annie fell upon him, laughing through their tears almost hysterically. They had given him up for dead. There had been rumors of torture and death, and after two weeks all hope had gone. The city turned out in rejoicing and thanksgiving for the return of the five men.

This terrible experience left its mark on Richard Ballantyne. How can a man remain unchanged after facing stark murder time and again at the hands of a half-crazed mob, after witnessing the blood-thirsty hatred and vicious savagery of supposedly civilized men, and after escaping almost miraculously when death seemed inevitable?

Persecution fails because it generally does the opposite it is intended to do. While it is true that, in some cases, it exposes moral cowards, defeats the timid and irresolute, and crushes the spiritless, it more often cements allegiance to the cause, adds fuel to an already burning faith, and unifies into a militant front those whom it would oppress.

There were Latter-day Saints who became frightened, embittered, and eventually apostatized. But there were many more who reacted with new fervor, redoubled energies, and greater loyalty to their principles. In Richard Ballantyne the fighting spirit was aroused. After his return that day, when his body was exhausted and his mind confused, he took time to think and to clarify the issues. He decided that the threat to his religion made it that much more priceless, more vital in his life. He could see no room for compromise with the enemies of the Church. They had tried to kill him; and when he thought about it, he became angry and indignant. But his enemies had an effect. Where he once had faith, he now had zeal. Where he might once have weakened, he would now be strong. His devotion to his Church had almost become a passion. He was now alert, on guard against anything which might undermine his faith. Like Daniel, he felt that God had rescued him from a fiery furnace, that he had been put through a supreme test, and that he would prove his faith by his obedience and service to the Gospel.

By September, 1846, Richard had settled all of the affairs of John Taylor's printing shop and had built the last carriage. He lost no time in packing what household goods they could take with them and then crossed the Mississippi. Again he was adrift. As he looked back for the last time, there was heaviness in his chest. He could see a silent and deserted city being ravished by hordes of savage men, its magnificent temple profaned and scarred. And he knew that Nauvoo was dead.

Chapter III - Dust, Wind, and Stars

Richard Ballantyne, sunburned, wiry, turned in the wagon seat and thoughtfully watched the billows of dust rising from the prairie. Stretched far behind him a caravan slowly threaded its way across Iowa toward Winter Quarters. It was a strange procession. There were white-topped prairie schooners yoked to oxen. There were carts and carriages drawn by single horses and teams. Chairs, tables, buckets, dressers, and a grotesque assortment of household utensils were lashed to the wagons. Cows and sheep were herded along the winding column. It was readily apparent that the movers had snatched whatever they could lay their hands on and carried what they could. There were men and women afoot with bundles on their backs and babies in their arms.

It was not a happy procession. Richard could see haggard faces; some were hard and bitter faces. He could see eyes that burned with fierce anger and humiliation. He could read despair and weariness printed on many features. Yet he recognized under the smoldering surface a curious determination and strength that radiated from this people. There seemed to be a fresh resurgence of hope as the days passed.

At night as he lay under the stars and listened to the howling of the prairie wolf, he wondered at the events that had brought him to this wild country. He had come in the name of religion, and his religion satisfied his reason and heart. Still he yearned for things he did not have. He wanted to settle down and find security. He wanted to enjoy some of the comforts of civilized living. He wanted to read good books, build a home, and bring up a family. While he knew that his ultimate destination was the Great Salt Lake Valley, he faced grimly the prospect of grubbing out an existence in a sterile desert. What he had heard about the Great Basin was not encouraging. It was not rich and green like Nauvoo. But Nauvoo was gone, and he had no choice. Long ago in the waters at Leith he had decided that his destiny lay with the Church.

As an officer in the company he had charge of a group of wagons and carriages, and every evening he made the rounds to see that all was well. He visited each family and rendered what service and advice he could as an elder of the Church. He inquired about Sister Jensen's new baby, gave suggestions to Brother Homer on the nursing of his lame ox, helped repair the wheel of Brother Hackett's covered wagon, and settled disputes that flared up occasionally between tired and aching men and women.

One night as he walked through the camp, he saw a dark-haired girl struggling with a team of oxen. She was tugging at the yoke while one of the animals pawed impatiently to break free. She screwed her lips tightly and jerked with a slim young body at the tossing head of the ox. Richard stepped quickly to her side.

Let me help you with that yoke," he said quietly.

She raised a pair of flashing eyes and a compressed mouth and firmly replied, "No, thank you. I'll do it myself."

There was a note of finality and polite coolness in her voice that rattled him and kept him from saying more. He turned reluctantly away.

The following evening in making his way among the wagons he saw the same girl seated on a vinegar keg sewing a patch on her father's jacket. He tipped his hat and nervously grinned. She lifted her eyes slightly and, sensing his shyness, gave him a quick reassuring smile. He caught himself staring at her and swung briskly away in confusion.

How different she is, he thought. He liked the way her wavy black hair was stretched back from a rather high forehead into a knot on her neck. It was modest and neat. Her eyes were deep-set and brown, almost black; and while her mouth was not especially beautiful, it was provocatively large and curved. She was thin and slight. Her skin was clear and softly olive. He was startled at the way he carefully noted everything about her.

Richard lost no time in learning her name. She was Huldah Meriah Clark. Her parents, Gardenar and Delecta Farrar Clark, had been converted in New York and had moved across the country one step ahead of the mobs. Huldah was one of six vivacious daughters, and these young women were born managers. They pampered their father with such success that the happy man never quite realized he was head of his family in name only and that many a plan so masterfully executed by him had actually been born in the nimble minds of his girls. And so he floated serenely through life on the masculine notion that he was the guiding spirit of the family, and no one would ever have it otherwise.

All of the young ladies had their eyes on Richard, for he was considered handsome and a very eligible bachelor. Each of the girls boldly confessed a desire to snare the tall Scotsman, but Huldah admonished her hopeful sisters that her campaign was already launched and for them to direct their hearts elsewhere. "I'm going to marry him," she reminded them move than once.

Richard now had another reason for making his evening tour through the camp. His eyes searched for Huldah whenever he passed her wagon; and when he saw her, he found some pretext to linger awhile with the Clarks. Soon it became obvious to everyone that his visits went beyond the call of duty. One night he mustered enough courage to invite her for a walk with him on the prairie. The stars were bright, and the moon cast its glow over the couple. In the stillness of the plains they talked of love.

After their arrival in Winter Quarters, Richard and Huldah were married by Heber C. Kimball on February 18, 1847. He was twenty-nine, she twenty-one. It was a simple but solemn ceremony, and after the wedding there was "sumptuous entertainment" and dancing.

The newlyweds began housekeeping in a rude shack built on the east bank of the Missouri River opposite Winter Quarters. The structure was something of a luxury when one considered that there were people still living in covered wagons and dugouts. Yet it had its problems. Its roof groaned at every gust of wind and leaked in the most inconvenient places when it rained. There was no need for a welcome mat, for through the rustic door came not only bishops and patriarchs but also beetles, squirrels, and an occasional snake. The floor was overlaid with a very durable material, terra firma. Neither could one complain about a lack of fresh air which so mysteriously found its entrance through the log chinks, and the fireplace not only gave out warmth and cheer but also much too frequently a quantity of smoke when the wind blew in just the right direction. But all in all the Richard Ballantynes were happy in their first home.

As the weeks and months dragged by and the dreaded winter once again set in, the bride grew accustomed to the dubious comforts of her house. She also learned the little ways of her husband. She was devoted to him. There was pride in her heart when they walked to church together on the Sabbath, when she wore her long muslin dress and blue bonnet. He would struggle into his homespun suit and brush his worn hat before leading out for the meeting house. He had a peculiar preference for white shirts, even when laboring in the fields.

Huldah recalled how Richard, after he had arrived in Winter Quarters, had given one-half of all his supplies to suffering Latter-day Saints when Bishop Joseph Knight called upon them for aid. It was more than a generous act. It was his obedience to the will of the Church leaders, for he believed that his duty to his religion came before everything else.

She approved of his habit of neither eating nor drinking without saying grace, no matter where he was. Even if he drank from a brook, he first lifted his hat and murmured a thanks. Morning and evening he insisted upon family prayer. It became the means of drawing them closer together, for the talked over their daily trials with God. Nothing interfered with this humble ritual, and they felt the Lord protected their union. She was also impressed by his manner of praying at church services. His voice was strong and clear, full of sincerity and reverence, and he extended both arms heavenward at right angles. Then, too, he enjoyed public speaking, but he was more of a story-teller than an orator.

She knew Richard was kind and considerate; but sometimes, like most husbands, he was thoughtless about doing the little things which women like and expect. Occasionally in his meditative moments she had to remind him to kiss her when he left in the morning, and he could not always remember such as anniversaries and birthdays. He was not one to make little speeches of love.

While he was serious and conscientious by nature, he still liked a good joke. He would laugh but never boisterously. It was a noiseless chuckle, with which he shook all over from his head to his toe with suppressed mirth. He frowned upon loud laughter, for it was "displeasing in the sight of God."

In these days beards were the rule rather than the exception, and Richard did not wish to be an exception. And so he grew an elegant underchin beard with whiskers extending up to his ears, and as it gained in length he tucked it proudly under his collar and shirt. His upper lip and cheeks remained bare. This beard became his trademark, and it stayed with him most of his life.

He would tolerate no trifling with things he considered sacred. He believed implicitly and tried to live faithfully the principles of his religion. Shortly after he arrived in Winter Quarters, he became counselor to Bishop Joseph Knight for a time, and later served in the same position under Bishop Matthew Peck. Richard leaned heavily on revelation and inspiration and recorded carefully his spiritual experiences in his journals. When problems troubled him he always sought divine guidance in fasting and prayer. He fought many of his battles on his knees.

He also believed strongly in dreams. The night before he was kidnapped he dreamed of rowing a boat up the Mississippi River with a group of people. He saw a tidal wave rolling toward him. He rowed frantically to shore, expecting every minute to be engulfed by the water. Suddenly he found himself and his companions walking safely along the river bank. He interpreted this dream to mean that he would be exposed to serious danger but would escape miraculously.

Before his marriage he dreamed he was fishing in the Missouri River and "threw out a large fish." He was puzzled. He related it to his mother, who suggested with a twinkle in her eye that it meant he would acquire a wife. For the time being he discreetly made no mention of this dream to Huldah. He felt instinctively that his bride would not accept philosophically this piscatorial allusion to herself.

Late in the spring of 1848, when the Ballantynes started for Salt Lake Valley in President Brigham Young's company, Huldah was expecting a child. At the Elkhorn River, in Nebraska, thirty miles from Winter Quarters, a temporary camp was established. There was delay while final preparations were being made and the details of company organization were being completed.

Then on June 1, before dawn, Richard Ballantyne jumped swiftly from the wagon, anxiously woke a neighbor, and asked him to tell the "Relief Society sisters" that Huldah needed help. Throughout the dusty day he heard the moans of his wife and the low talk of the women. Finally, in the stifling heat of the covered wagon, a son was born to Richard and Huldah. He was named Richard Alando Ballantyne.

For many days the life of the infant hung in the balance. He suffered from a severe case of canker, and the heart and hardships of the camp did not make it easier for him. One night the worried father lifted him from the rough crib, wrapped a blanket around him, and placed him on a pillow. Then he carried the baby into the woods, where Richard kneeled and prayed over his son with all the fervency of his soul. He pleaded with the Lord to save the child's life. He made a covenant that if the life were spared, the boy would be brought up in the service of the Church. The prayer was answered, and the baby lived to fulfill that promise.

With two wagons and four yoke of oxen, two cows, eight sheep, and provisions to last almost a year, the Ballantynes continued their journey to the Great Salt Lake Valley. For a hundred days this large company of Latter-day Saints battled the dust, wind, and sun. They were threatened by Indians. Babies were born and some died. Old men and women faltered and fell by the way. The smooth young faces of girls became wind-bitten and sun-scorched. City-soft men became hard and rough. Oxen grew lame, were shot, and eaten. Food was rationed. Water was scarce. The trek changed the people even more than previous flights. Yet under all of these conditions the camp danced at night and sang on the way.

In September, 1848, the wagon train descended from the mountains to the Great Salt Lake Valley. It was a forbidding land. There were only about 1800 inhabitants in the settlement at that time, and few permanent structures had been built. It was dry, hot, and sterile. The Ballantynes and the rest of the company settled in the Old Fort and once again grimly set about to build their futures.

Chapter IV - More Precious than Empires

It's going to storm, Huldah," said Richard Ballantyne, as he pushed himself away from the dinner table. "Look at those clouds over the mountains."

Now don't worry, Richard," his wife answered, picking up a handful of dirty dished and depositing them in a battered dishpan. Yet she stole an anxious look at the darkening skies and ran a tired hand over her aching forehead.

Yes, I know, but everything we have is in that wheat field, and it's just beginning to ripen. I'd better get the animals under the shed."

As he walked across the corral, he glanced fearfully at the clouds rolling in from the northwest. No sooner had he sheltered the team and the cow than he saw that the heavens were black with heaving thunder billows, and the wind blew. Then suddenly hard pellets of hail began beating the ground, and over the waving sea of grain burst the hailstorm.

Richard sprinted to a small shack. Pulling the door shut behind him he stared out the window at the merciless sweep of the storm. He was sick with despair and heartbreak. Never before had he felt so inclined to shake his fist at the elements and curse his own helplessness. His hopes for a lush harvest were shattered, and the labor of months destroyed. It was a staggering defeat in his battle for survival, but just another victory for this forsaken country.

As the hail drummed down on his crops, his mind brooded over the coming winter. He knew what it meant. Last year he had arrived too late to harvest and had to fight the spectre of starvation through the long and bitter months on short rations. He thought of those months and marveled how people could live on so little. He remembered how soon their hunger overcame dainty tastes and fastidious habits. Already he had learned that sego roots could be made into a respectable meal and thistles and weeds were not to be spurned as greens. He knew what it was to work long hours in the fields, his body weakened by lack of nourishment, and then drop at night exhausted and discouraged into a fitful sleep. And now this disaster meant another lean and hungry winter, and again he set his jaw and tightened his belt and faced the prospect of feeding his family without a crop.

As the summer passed, he nurtured what little remained of his grain field. Then strangely enough in the shadows of catastrophe he was inspired with an idea, an idea so remote from his present calamity that he was at a loss to explain it. Yet the seed had been planted years before in Scotland. Even now as he lost his first battle with the desert, it crowded into his mind with such persistence that his other problems seemed to fade into insignificance. It almost seemed as if ruin and failure had brought it into sharp focus. Less idealistic men might have believed other things should come first, such as the feeding of people and the building of cities, but Richard Ballantyne felt that there were some important things which could not wait for the conquest of the arid wastelands.

His memory carried him back to the little village of Fawns in Scotland where smudge-faced boys and girls played in the streets on Sundays. He again relived the thrill of pleasure that came to him when he succeeded in bringing these neglected youngsters into the Sunday School of his parish. He knew that God did not intend that children should be forgotten, no matter what the conditions were. Here on the desert he became worried about their teaching, and often when he was alone he would kneel in prayer seeking guidance. Finally he asked his bishop for permission to carry out his plan. He received approval and encouragement not only from his bishop but also from many of the General Authorities as well.

It was then he made up his mind. Already he had loaded his belongings into the wagons and with Huldah and the baby had driven out of the Old Fort. He located on a lot about a half mile south and west of the proposed temple site. Here he built one small room to be used as a summer kitchen. He and his family lived in the two covered wagons, sleeping in one and storing supplies in the other.

Then he began building the structure which meant so much to him. During the warm summer days he slipped away to Mill Creek Canyon where he cut down some trees. The logs he hauled out of the mountains to the mill, where they were sawed into shares. He staked his share of the lumber in the yard of his homestead. He next drove his team to Red Butte Canyon and filled his wagon with rocks from the quarry. From the old yard west of the city he obtained adobe bricks.

While he worked, children scampered through the lot playing "Indian." One bedraggled boy of nine looked up at Richard and mischievously asked, "Whatcha buildin'?"

The lean Scotsman paused in his hammering and smiled tenderly at the freckled face, "I'm building something for you and your playmates, a place where you can learn about God."

What kinda place, did you say?"

You just wait and see."

Richard was happy as he worked. He excitedly made his plans. He only chafed because he could not spend his full time in building this addition; but when he was not struggling for clothing and food for his family, every spare minute went into that house. Many times the quietness of the night was broken by the sound of his hammer and saw, and many times he felt the closeness of God and his heart warmed with the sense of right.

Soon the red sandstone foundation was laid. Then the four walls took shape. For the window sashes and doors he exchanged work with a skilled carpenter. He set the adobes on the outside, plastered the inside, built rafters from the dressed logs over which he nailed boards, and then covered the roof with several inches of dirt.

When the house was completed, he surveyed the work of his own hands. It was a squat sturdy cottage. Perhaps it appeared rough to the trained eye of a carpenter, but it was solid and simple. From the outside it was the slate gray color of adobe. The plain room was twenty feet long and eighteen feet wide and about ten feet from the foundation to the square of the walls, and it adjoined the summer kitchen. It was lighted by two windows in the front and a window and a door, the upper part of which was glass, on the south side. The floor was made of dressed planking. The woodwork was painted white on the inside, except for the door which was painted brown.

There was now only one remaining deficiency. To remedy it he took some slabs of timber, in which he drilled holes at regular intervals. In these holes he fastened legs at an angle of forty-five degrees. Here were the benches to complete the schoolroom, and he placed them alongside the open fireplace at the south end of the house.

But it would take more than wood and stone to make this home attractive, and so he dug up cottonwood trees from City Creek Canyon, which he planted about the grounds for beauty and shade. He also transplanted shrubs and vines and built a pole fence around the house. He did his best to make it an appropriate place to worship God.

And after his final touches, it was ready. With a broad grin and a light-hearted enthusiasm he rounded up the children of the neighborhood. He told them of his plan. He invited them to come to Sunday School in his new home. While there might have been some gentle prodding on the part of parents, most of the youngsters eagerly anticipated this new adventure.

On Sunday morning at eight o'clock about thirty children between the ages of eight and thirteen trooped into the classroom that Richard had built. They stamped their feet on the threshold, shook the snow off their coats and hats, and took their places on the simple benches. They waited expectantly for the class to begin. It was a cold snowy day outside, but the fireplace gave out a warm, friendly glow. It was December 9, 1849.

Richard Ballantyne's eyes shone as he called the Sunday School to order. He led the boys and girls in singing, and then with arms upraised he gave a quiet but fervent prayer dedicating this room to teaching children the Gospel of Jesus Christ. His voice was rich, and the words rolled forth as words so under the spell of reverence and emotion.

At the close of the prayer he glanced over the young congregation. Yes, there were John Taylor's children, and Parley P. Pratt's, and Franklin D. Richards', and Wilford Woodruff's. There in his wife's arms was his own son, oblivious to his surroundings. He noticed, almost for the first time, Huldah's worn and thin face and realized with a little pang that she had borne all of the disappointments and hardships without a murmur of complaint or discouragement. She had even worked at his side by candlelight after the baby was in bed. She had selected the music for the school, offered suggestions on the teaching program, and added her feminine touch to the room which gave it that cozy and homey atmosphere. She had always been at his side when he needed her. Her enthusiasm heartened him more than once when he was discouraged.

The freckled face that was so inquisitive a few weeks ago as he worked on the house was on the front row with the same mischievous, almost impish, expression. A tiny girl with a blue bow in her blonde hair sat with folded hands, shy perhaps frightened. Little Angus Cannon twisted in his seat and glared at his boy neighbor who jabbed him from behind. There were lively pairs of legs and arms that dangled and wiggled on the benches, legs and arms that yet had to be disciplined. He could see in the boys the suppressed energy that would burst forth whenever he turned his head.Richard opened the New Testament, read a short scripture, and spoke to his young audience, "This morning I want to tell you a story. It is the story of a baby boy, who was born in a far away land, in a little village called Bethlehem. This baby was the Lord Jesus Christ . . . ."

The class listened breathlessly as the tall, bearded Scotsman unfolded the story of Jesus. His voice rose with feeling. Deep in his eyes were reflected the love and passion he held for the Church, and every word had been molded in a heart full of affection for children. Here was his element, the thing he had been born to do. Of all the vocations he had followed, and was yet to follow, none brought him joy comparable to that of teaching young minds the faith which he prized beyond measurement.

Years later he was to say,

I was early called to this work by the voice of the spirit, and I have felt many times that I have been ordained to this work before I was born, for even before I joined the Church I was moved upon to work for the young. Surely no more joyful nor profitable labor can be performed by an elder. There is growth in the young. The seed sown in their hearts is more likely to bring forth fruit than when sown in the hearts of those who are more advanced in years. Furthermore, I had passed through much, and had been sorely tried by friends and foes, and in it all the Gospel had proved such a solace to me that I was very desirous of seeing that all the children of the Saints should learn to prize it as I valued it. And more, I saw that the children, from the very nature and circumstances of the people, were being neglected; and I wanted to gather them into the school where they could learn not to read and write, but the goodness of God, and the true gospel of salvation given by Jesus Christ.

Here was the motive. It was the dazzling vision of the Gospel which centered around an idea taught by the Prophet Joseph Smith. This idea had a singular grip on Richard Ballantyne and thousands of others, for it held that man is divine and capable of infinite and God-like development. There was more to it than pleasant-sounding and impressive words. It was the hub of the entire Plan of Salvation, which included a belief in pre-existence as well as hereafter. If there is a spark of Deity flickering in man, can it not be kindled into a bright flame under proper instruction? If man is the offspring of God, does it not follow that as God is man may become?

Richard was absorbed with these questions. He had heard them answered many times by the Prophet. He could remember one night in Nauvoo, shortly after he had arrived from Scotland, when he listened to the tall, handsome Joseph addressing an evening meeting. There was something about the Prophet that had mystified and yet attracted him. Joseph Smith spoke of eternity in such a way that Richard almost felt that a curtain had been pulled aside and that he had been given a privileged glimpse of the celestial and timeless. That the Prophet made a profound impression on Richard Ballantyne there can be no doubt. Whenever the Scotsman listened to the sermons of his leader, he would return to his home thrilled with the realization that the Gospel can transform men into gods. He was often filled with a sense of urgency to spread this thing he had heard through the earth. While he had never been one of the Prophet's inner circle, he was nevertheless so devoted to this man who had dispelled his darkness that he was ready and willing, if necessary, to take up arms to defend him and the Church.

And so Richard Ballantyne became a man of an ideal, an ideal so important and vital to him that he could not postpone the teaching of it any longer. Like the teacher he was, Richard had to teach; and he wanted to teach the knowledge that was more precious to him than rubies and gold. When was the best time to teach that ideal? Now, when the younger generation was springing up. In the minds of the youth ideas can best be planted. The children„growing up in a wild desert, exposed to the rough, cruel, and hazardous conditions of a refugee people„needed the strongest of spiritual supports; and Richard Ballantyne was determined to supply them.

For a year Sunday School was held every week in the Ballantyne home. The enrollment rose to fifty, and the small room became very crowded. Most of the lessons came directly from the scriptures, for books were scarce. The pupils were required to bring their own texts, which they did: Bibles, Books of Mormon, and Doctrine and Covenants.

During this time Richard was serving as second counselor to Bishop John Murdock of the Fourteenth Ward, who was enthusiastic with the efforts of his co-worker to educate the youth in the Gospel. In the fall of 1850 the Fourteenth Ward chapel was completed, and the rapidly growing Sunday School was moved from the Ballantyne home to the new meetinghouse. Here Richard continued as superintendent, assisted by Joseph Horne and Phineas Richards. The expanding Sunday School class was now divided into a number of small classes, and several other teachers were called into service.

Richard was surprised at the early success of his plan. As time went on, other bishoprics began talking of organizing Sunday Schools in their wards. Generally the plan was popular, although there were a few who opposed it as being "sectarian" and imported from the outside But these few were definitely in the minority, and the movement gained a foothold.

And so a gleam of inspiration in the discouraged mind of a man who had suffered disaster his first year in the Rocky Mountains grew like the mustard seed until it spread over the Church, and this man was to say, "I felt that the Gospel was too precious to myself to be withheld from the children. They ought to have the privilege of Gospel teaching, and that was the main purpose„to teach them the Gospel„because I felt it was very precious to me and I thought it would be precious to them; and it was my duty to do that."

Chapter V - Away to the Orient

For four years he had planted his crops, and for four years his crops had failed. If hailstorms did not bring ruin, the crickets did. It was a vicious cycle, but the tall Scot hung on grimly. Yet it seemed as if all the madness of creation conspired against Richard Ballantyne. Life had been hard in Nauvoo and on the plains, but never like it had been in Utah. The Ballantynes had been hungry for four years. They were poorly clothed. There was no money. Every day it was a hand-to-mouth struggle. As a farmer Richard early learned that no disappointment is more bitter than crop failure, but four crop failures in succession are enough to crush the zeal and break the heart of the stoutest.

But there was one certainty: no one knew what tomorrow would bring. After seeing his carefully laid plans crumble one after another, he was prepared for almost anything„that is, anything except what happened at the special conference of the Church held in Salt Lake City on August 28 and 29, 1852.

There were two features of this conference. The first was the public announcement of the revelation on celestial marriage, and the either was the calling of one hundred six elders for foreign missions.

If a cannonball had been shot from the pulpit, he could not have been more surprised. For his call came without warning. The name of Richard Ballantyne was listed among those who were to preach the Gospel in Hindostan. For a moment he was so stunned that he could hardly believe what he had heard. He glanced quickly at Huldah. Her set jaw, pale face, and clenched white knuckles proved he had heard correctly. Turning back to face the speakers stand, listening vaguely to the last of the names read by the conference clerk, Thomas Bullock, he began to realize the meaning of the words he doubted as being real.

His call had come at the lowest ebb of his fortunes. It meant a mission to the other side of the globe when he was already destitute and his future anything but bright. How could his family survive without him during these critical times? And what kind of a place was Hindostan anyway?

If the missionary call came as a shock to Richard, it was even a greater shock to Huldah. On the way home from the meeting she fought back the tears that welled up in her eyes, but she could not keep the quiver from her lips. The icy hand of fear seemed to claw at her heart, and she numbly and silently began to plan.

In the days that followed she resolutely set to work to outfit her husband for the journey. With an ache in her breast she darned his socks, mended and scrubbed his frayed shirts and underwear. She picked up his threadbare coat, which had been discarded in favor of buckskin, and saw that it was ventilated at each elbow and at the shoulder. Even the thread holding the seams was breaking down, and it certainly could not withstand the rigors of a long trip. Not only were the trousers precariously worn, but also on the vest and coat there were loose strings where buttons had been. She breathed a deep sigh, but there was no time to waste in vain regret and self-pity. She had too much to do.With the swift resourcefulness of her sex, Huldah went into action. She lifted her best homespun skirt out of the trunk, the skirt she had woven and dyed herself. As she pressed the cloth between her fingers, she briefly recalled the many hours she had put into the weaving of this material and how she had looked forward to wearing it during the winter. Drawing upon her youthful experience as a tailor, she ripped out the seams, took the measurements of her impatient model, and began to sew. From this black homespun skirt she skillfully tailored a complete suit for her husband, and this suit was to last him through his mission.

On the sixteenth of October, Richard was set apart for this mission by Wilford Woodruff, Joseph Young, and Jedediah M. Grant. In his blessing the latter promised him: "You shall be a light that is set on an hill. . . You shall bless and your blessings shall be upon those you bless. . . Prisons shall not hold you, neither shall you be bound with bonds strong enough to retain you. Neither can the wicked have power to crush you. . . ."

Four days later, as the first streaks of dawn broke in the east, Richard Ballantyne threw the last bundle into his wagon, adjusted the harnesses on the team, and then walked to the side of his wife. He hooked long into her eyes and wordlessly embraced her. His three children were awake. The baby was crying. Richard, the eldest, stood in the doorstep and repeated again:

Papa, I want to go too."

No, Richard, you are the man of the house now and will have to take care of your mother and Delecta and David. I'll not be gone too long."

The Scotsman again turned to his wife, took her trembling hand in his, and wiped a tear from her cheek.

Now, Huldah, teach the children. Richard will soon be ready for school. See that they all learn the Gospel. Help them grown in faith. Teach them to pray, and all of you pray for me. If you need anything, go to the brethren. Remember that Brother Brigham said he will look after you if things get too bad. Seek the counsel of Brother John Taylor when he is in the city. Trust in the Lord, and never doubt his love and watchcare for us. All will be well. You'll hear from me before many weeks have passed. Address your letters to Brother Kimball in San Francisco."

He wanted to say more, but his throat choked. He took Huldah in his arms and held her for a long time. He kissed each child once again. Then he climbed quickly into the wagon and started the mules down the road. He glanced behind him and waved at the lonely figure of his wife. As he rode on he heard his boy screaming, "Papa, Papa, come back, come back!"

And so the missionary turned his team south on the first leg of his journey to India. He had left his family with two horses and a cow, a small farm productive only in crop failures, fifty pounds of flour, and a benediction.

[A more complete history of his missionary journey is given in the book. I shall only give samples here.]

Richard's journal became his most intimate companion. In it he confided his innermost thoughts, observations, travel notes, and adventures. It was a habit he cultivated for the next several years. He wrote in rich flowing prose. He had an inbred literary instinct, and he could handle a sentence with power and grace.

At Nephi City, where the elders were hospitably entertained by Church members and featured at a special meeting in the schoolhouse [and twenty-five missionaries spoke], he made a typical entry:

The Brethren traveling to their various missions were requested to speak their feelings, and it was glorious to listen to the power of the Spirit of the Lord that was in them. They bore testimony, and it was mighty. They felt weak but they were strong in the Lord. They felt ignorant but the light of the Gospel was luminous within them. They felt that they had forsaken all things for the gospel's sake, but they were not forsaken of God.

As they were nearing Indian territory, they organized themselves into an orderly company by electing a "Captain, Sergeant of the Guard and Chaplain." Their brief stopover in Nephi was brightened by the warmest of receptions, and Richard noted in his diary, "The brethren and sisters here vie with each other who shall minister to our wants as if we were angels of God."

After passing through Round Valley and crossing a range of the Sevier Mountains, the missionaries descended into Pauvan Valley, where the Sevier River empties into Sevier Lake. They met with heavy rainstorms for two days. They slept on the ground during the deluge and awoke in the mornings with an inch of ice frozen on the water surrounding their bunks. . . .

At Fillmore the travelers were provided with grain for their animals. . . . The company passed through Dog Valley, a name derived from the existence of a veritable 'prairie dog city." Richard wrote, "Here I am informed that Brother Brigham said the 'Gadianton Robbers' had their stronghold."

After driving through Beaver Valley and Red Creek, they arrived at Parowan Fort on Nov- ember 1. Here Apostle George A. Smith directed personally the outfitting of the company for the trek across the desert to California. He also advised them to "refresh yourselves in dancing and preaching."

A dance was held that night in honor of the missionaries. The dancing was interspersed with songs, recitations, and addresses. Elder George A. Smith, in the opening talk, cautioned the elders of the dangers they might expect from women and evil spirits and the great deep. He said that since it would be known they were advocates of the new doctrine of plurality of wives they would be considered licentious men, subject to suspicion unless their lives were very circumspect. A meeting was later held at Coal Creek, a small settlement where an effort was being made to manufacture iron. Again the apostle repeated his advice.

Amply supplied with grain and food, the company resumed its journey. As the travelers pulled away from the Fort, the American flag was unfurled, and cheers rang in their ears. The next stop was Cedar Fort, where the men were again welcomed warmly. Of the kindness of the inhabitants, Richard noted in his diary,

The parting scene with the Saints of Cedar Fort was very affecting. Many were the tears that flowed down the cheeks. Men of the hardest feeling were melted down while many of the brethren and sisters were so deeply affected, and their hearts so full, that while they gave the parting hand they were unable to utter a tender farewell. They came out and watched our departure as far as we could be seen. . . . May the Lord bless this people an hundred fold for their kindness to us."

[They crossed the desert and over rocky and hilly roads to Mountain Meadow, then over a rough broken mountainous road to the Santa Clara River.]

On November 11, after a particularly hard day on the trail, the camp was visited by guests who were anything but welcome. They were a small band of Piute Indians who stalked into the camp and made themselves comfortable. The redskins were dirty, puny, and shifty-eyed. With only a few grunts and signs they made it plain they expected some food and the warmth of the fire. After partaking liberally of the company rations the savages calmly rolled themselves into their blankets and slumbered until morning. There is no doubt that if there was a missionary there who had never before slept with one eye open he learned to do so that night.

[Over mountains and rivers and through country infested with wolves and Indians and on to the barren flats of sand and mesquite, the company arrived at Las Vegas with no mishap. Their next goal was San Bernardino where they arrived on December 2, 1852.]

There were many things to do in San Bernardino. The elders disposed of their traveling outfits, collected means to carry them further on their journey, visited, studied, and wrote letters to their families. . . .

Before he left, Richard received a gift of $60.75 from the people of San Bernardino. He also sold a mule and harness, which was his part of the team which carried them to California, and sent the money to his wife in Salt Lake City as he had been instructed by Brigham Young. He was now literally "without purse or scrip."

On December 17, 1852, the missionaries resumed their journey to Los Angeles, arriving there two days later in a drenching rain. The rented a house and ate supper at the Star Hotel. Then they returned to their quarters and sat up reading and talking until midnight. Suddenly the elders were startled by a singular noise, went the door, and heard the yells, groans, and oaths of a drunken crowd a few rods from us. This sounds like the music of hell, and entirely different from the song of joy, thanksgiving and melody we have long been accustomed to hear emanating from the habitations of the Saints in the stakes of Zion.

After a few days in Los Angeles the company went on to San Pedro, where the missionaries parted from the San Bernardino Saints who, [refusing pay for their services] had brought them [in wagons] from the Luego Ranche [which had been purchased by the Church as a supply depot for Saints emigrating to Utah.]

At San Pedro the missionaries bargained with the captain of a brig to carry them to San Francisco for $17.60 each for cabin fair, which was $37.50 less per head than the usual fare on steam packets. Preparations were completed for the voyage, and Richard wrote, "We sold everything we had to dispose of at very high liberal prices; and most everything we have needed, we have had furnished us below the usual price. This is an evidence that the Lord is working with us."

The departure of the vessel was delayed because of the heavy rains and rough seas. The day after Christmas the skies cleared and the work of cleaning the ship began. Wood was put on board. Provisions were loaded below decks, and on December 28th the missionaries carried their luggage over the side. They took up quarters in the cabin, as they had understood they were to have cabin passage. But when the captain came aboard, it was a different story. He flew into a terrible rage, cursing and swearing in the best seadog fashion. It was evident there was either a serious misunderstanding or the captain intended to take advantage of the absence of a written contract.

After a lengthy discussion a compromise was reached. The officer offered the elders eight cabin berths and invited them to eat by turns at the cabin table. He informed them they could take it or leave it. There was not much choice, since the next ship leaving for San Francisco was weeks away. And so the proposition was accepted, and they drew for berths.

Richard Ballantyne was one who drew a cabin berth. He was thankful for his good fortune, because his health had been poor lately. He was almost immediately stricken with recurrent malaria which he had contracted in Nauvoo, and for the duration of the voyage he shivered under heavy blankets racked with a high fever. He was in misery not only from his illness but also the living conditions on board the ship. "The stench of the vessel from bilge water and other causes was very offensive; and this coupled with the rocking of the vessel and the want of such diet as I could eat made the ten days of the voyage one of the most disagreeable of my existence. Yet in the midst of it, my soul has been comforted in midnight reflections and in prayer to my God."

Chapter VI - The Good Ship Monsoon

[I'll leave out the description of San Francisco in 1853 except for this:] It is no wonder that the high-spirited elder early found reason to frown on the sin of this amazing city. And sin there was, whooping sin of all kinds, and even the most casual observer could perceive it at first glance. . . .

What a city for missionaries!" Richard exclaimed aloud. "Here I am, going to India to preach to heathens, and if any place ever needed good Gospel preaching it is in San Francisco."

[Their biggest problem was in obtaining funds for the journey.] The amount needed to send the elders to their fields was $6,250 of which $1,800 would be necessary for the nine missionaries to India alone. [After trying to raise the money from the general public for missions] it was obvious that financial assistance would not be forthcoming from the Gentiles. [The saints rallied, one even supplying some $4000;] and so the needed cash was produced.

It was a triumph, and Richard thankfully noted in his journal; "We see clearly that the Lord is able to do his own work, and notwithstanding its magnitude, or the amount of means required, our faith is continually increased in the power of his wonder-working hand."

Now that the money was collected there remained the difficulty of finding suitable transportation to the various destinations. After many inquiries among the vessels the missionaries finally arranged cabin passage with Captain Zenas Windsor of the clipper Monsoon, which had left Boston the same day the elders were appointed to their missions. The ship was almost ready to sail for India.

It was an era of clipper ships, and the Monsoon was one of these queens of the seas. She was as slender and graceful as a gull. Like a knife her sharp bow cut through the buffeting waters. Sloping backwards and carrying full square-rigged sails the three masts added to that streamlined silhouette which was so familiar during the gold rush. With such a large spread of canvas on her timbers, she was obviously built for speed. The hull was picturesquely painted in bands of white and black. About the craft there was an exciting air of romance and adventure.

When Captain Windsor sailed his queen through the Golden Gate on the following day, the passengers "took the last view of San Francisco and the American continent for a few years." As soon as the land disappeared, the elders decided to elect officers for the duration of the long voyage. Although Richard Ballantyne moved that some one be chosen weekly to preside, he was overruled and duly elected president. [A total of thirteen elders were aboard.]

In the evening of the second day Richard was overcome with seasickness. Then violent pains in the head and chest and a severe backache and nausea confined him to his berth. With the appearance of a skin eruption it was apparent that he had smallpox. Such a disease on board a ship which had no physician almost caused panic, and the newly-elected president no longer found himself popular.

Smallpox also afflicted Levi Savage, who had administered to an infected child in San Francisco. His face was covered with almost solid blotches. The two missionaries were isolated in their cabin. During their illness the other elders nursed them,

especially Brother Robert Skelton who has waited on us with unwearied car and kindness, all the time of my sickness, and exposing himself to the contagion. But he is a man of great faith and good works. If ever he, oh, Father, shall be like situated, may he never lack a friend or brother to soothe his feelings, to dry his tears, to relieve his pains and distress; and may an abundance of thy Spirit ever comfort him in sorrow and affliction, and in all the meanderings of his life.

It was the beginning of a close friendship between Richard Ballantyne and Robert Skelton.

Now that the two missionaries were virtual prisoners on their cabin, they spent their time reading and studying. The captain loaned them a volume on India . . . [and] they poured over the book avidly seeking information about the strange land where they were to preach. They were not surprised to learn that the climate is extremely hot and oppressive, particularly in the Bengal province where they were planning to center their activities. A peculiar feature of this country is the rainy season beginning in June and continuing until September. At this time the rain descends in sheets for two or three days, followed by several days of cool and pleasant weather. For a breadth of a hundred miles the valleys of the Ganges are flooded by the overflowing river, sometimes causing widespread destruction and havoc. This season is particularly unhealthy; and epidemics of Asiatic cholera, smallpox, and fever frequently sweep over populated areas. The book pointed out that India is not a white man's country. It cautioned foreigners against exposure to the burning sun, the damp night air, the dangers of dysentery from the "too free use of fruits and vegetables," and recommended exercise in the cool of the morning and evening, especially horseback riding. Instead of dampening the enthusiasm of the two patients these hard facts stimulated their curiosity and eagerness to meet the conditions as they found them.

* * * *

It was not until February 20 that the two elders were released from their cabin and once again mingled freely with the other missionaries. They washed themselves, three away the clothing worn during their illness, filled their lungs with the tangy sea air, and settled down to the tedium of ocean travel.

* * * *

Conditions on board the Monsoon were pleasant.

A good cheerful spirit also seems to prevail on the vessel from Captain to crew, and scarce a profane word has been heard since we came on board. The Captain allows us every privilege that we can desire, is sociable, and furnishes excellent, healthy diet three times a day. We have fresh bread morning and evening with potatoes, meat, butter, cheese, etc. And at noon have soup, plum or rice pudding, potatoes, meat, etc., with tea and coffee morning to those who drink it. Many of the brethren don't use it, preferring to observe the Word of Wisdom."

* * * *

The winds remained strong, much to the surprise of Captain Windsor who had been expecting a calm for over a week. He told the elders that never before had he such good sailing and had never traveled such a distance in so short a time. The Monsoon was averaging 166 miles a day, and the missionaries were certain that their prayers for favorable winds had something to do with it.

Captain Windsor was not a religious man. He was a tough-minded professional seaman who combined interesting qualities of education with sternness on deck and geniality over the dinner table. Yet he suspected that the hand of the Lord might be shaping the destiny of his vessel, and to show his goodwill he said that if the missionaries were able to abstain from tobacco he would threw his tobacco pouch overboard forthwith. And overboard went the tobacco pouch.

Although the skipper was anything but captivated by the religious services, he did not discourage his sailors from listening to the sermons of the elders. Frequently members of the crew stood on the outer circle of the meetings and were interested.

* * * * In his moments of meditation Richard sometimes composed maxims, such as:

Those who read much and feed their minds with truth, need the spirit of the Lord intermixed therewith to have it digest, and thus the spirit of man is nourished and his mind strengthened. Those who read much and reflect little, are like the man who receives so much food into his stomach that it cannot digest so as to nourish his body. Read, and reflect.

When Richard poured his heart into his journal, his prose became almost poetry.

Time rushes on in its rapid course carrying us along to the end of our days; and oh, that we might well improve the short period allotted to us here, upon which hangs such mighty and eternal consequences. "As the tree falls so it lies" is an ancient saying, and according to the manner and diligence of our lives in laying a good foundation for the time to come, so will be the glory and honor and exaltation and enlargement of our future state, and the superstructure we shall build. O that we might redeem the time that has been unprofitably spent in applying our lives with double diligence in the improvement of that which is to come! So may we lie down in peace and rise in honor. So may we secure for ourselves and our posterity and families a kingdom that shall never end. Behold! he shall go forth as the morning and his light shall not be dimmed. His posterity shall arise and call him blessed, and to his dominion and government there shall be no end.

* * * *As the day approached when they would disembark at Calcutta, the missionaries intensified their studies and preparation. School was held morning and afternoon. Lectures on English grammar were given by Richard and Chauncy. The elders delivered sermons to each other, and they were free with suggestions for improvement. They were a conscientious group at work.

On Monday morning, April 25, the ship reached the Sand Heads, which are banks or shoals of sand at the mouth of the Hoogly River. The settlings of mud and sand made navigation up the river anything but easy. "The water on the Sand Heads presents a roily or somewhat milky appearance and is easily discovered from the deep blue waters of the ocean or bay."

The voyage up the Hoogly was at best hazardous and required the skillful hand of the pilot who had come aboard. His name was Sandyman, and his companions were Bartlett and Hog. Each white man was accompanied by a native servant. With Mr. Hog, Richard conversed about religion as the vessel slowly snaked its way up the hundred mile river.

At last the voyage was over. The lights of Calcutta, the City of Palaces, glowed over the glassy waters. The elders had traveled half way around the world. On the sea alone they had sailed 10,936 miles in 88 days. . . . It was a hot and stifling evening. The Monsoon rolled restlessly at anchor in the Hoogly River opposite Fort William, a magnificent citadel engineered by Lord Clive in 1757. The missionaries were packing their belongings to land in Calcutta the next day.

Chapter VII - City of Palaces

Here at last was India, that strange land of contrast and antagonisms. Fabulous India harbored every contradiction of the human race. It was a land of palaces and penury, of filth and magnificence, of culture and degradation. To the western mind India was indeed mysterious. In many ways it was also fearsome. It was a place where the cobra and tiger extracted a frightful toll of human life each year, where millions died annually of sheer overpopulation.

When Richard Ballantyne finally stepped ashore, fighting off the nagging mob of beggars and coolies who whined for baksheesh or scrambled to carry his luggage, he soon discovered that India was also a smelly country. He concluded, like Rudyard Kipling a half century later, that there were probably more odors in Calcutta than anywhere else in the world, ranging from the faint air of sun-burnt clay to the nauseating stench of unwashed bodies. It was the lack of sanitation among the natives that gave rise to devastating plagues, and at this moment an epidemic of cholera was raging in the city. Then the smothering heat magnified and concentrated every odor until it was almost unbearable to his sensitive nostrils. Even in such a city as Calcutta, built by the English in the seventeenth century, he was to learn that smells were part and parcel of the atmosphere.

He was another missionary in a country where a myriad of religions flourished side by side. The Hindu, Sikh, Moslem, Parsee, Buddist [sic], and Jain all clashed and scraped and chafed against each other. To the Hindu the cow was sacred, and it wandered untethered through the streets. It was the creature that spelled the distance between the faiths, for it was eaten by one and worshipped by another. Sordid orgies, secret temple rites, and sacred prostitution were performed in the name of religion. The dark grip of the caste system had for centuries straight-jacketed the nation.

Into this climate had come the early Christians. Legend holds that here Thomas Didymus proclaimed his testimony of the Risen Christ and was martyred. It was here the Catholic monks came with their rosary and cross, and then the Protestants with their Bible. And now the Latter-day Saints had entered with an unique revelation and a Restored Gospel. Yet all the sects of Christendom had been as water dripping on a boulder. The only headway had been an almost imperceptible erosion, a slight acceptance, little more.

At the wharf the elders were greeted by a thirteen-year-old boy, Henry Fredrick McCune. His father was Matthew McCune, who was one of the first three converts to the Church in Calcutta during the year 1851 and was now serving in the English Army near Rangoon in the Burma War. His mother could never arouse any enthusiastic support for the doctrine of polygamy, but she showed her devotion by opening her home and preparing many homecooked meals for homesick missionaries.

The McCune boy was wise beyond his years. He was an excellent guide, who soon awakened his guests to the stern realities of India. As the carriage wove its way through the throngs on the narrow streets, young Henry identified portly and bare-legged babus in snowy white dhotis. He pointed out tall Afghans in voluminous dirty white garments. Arabs, Persians, Malays, Hindus, and giant Sikhs were to be seen on every side. Then there were beggars with horribly distorted limbs with open running sores and self-inflicted injuries. Occasionally a leper would slink down a dark alley.

The Missionaries were taken to the home of James P. Meik, where they were provided with a large and comfortable room. Their expectations of a thriving branch of the Church were blasted when their host informed them that there were less than twenty members in the city, and only about six were still active.

James P. Meik was a quiet, retiring British army officer. He was a man of culture and learning. His hospitality to the missionaries won him first place in their hearts, for he not only turned over to them a spacious room in his house but also arranged for their board. He was well-to-do and gave liberally to the Church. At his own expense he had built a chapel in Calcutta on Inan Bayor Street.

One night in the Meik home the missionaries heard the story of the Calcutta mission, a story beginning with two humble elders who undertook an amazing journey up the River Ganges. They were William Willes and Joseph Richards. And their adventure is an unsung saga in Mormon missionary annals.

It was November 1852. Elder Willes, who was president of the Calcutta Branch, was growing impatient and restless. He felt that his missionary work was reaching a stalemate in the city. He needed new soil in which to plant his message. As he pondered the problem, a thought flashed in his mind. Why not strike out for the interior of India and try his luck at itinerant preaching? He took the matter up with his companion who readily agreed to the plan. Friends warned them of the dangers of such a trip, but the young men had too much of the adventurous spirit and zeal of their religion. Elder Willes was immediately relieved as presiding officer, and James P. Meik was appointed in his place.

Early one morning the two elders set out on foot on the first leg of their six hundred mile trek up the Ganges. They hiked through riche paddies, indigo plantations, deserts, jungles, native villages, and ancient cities. Their steps followed the winding Ganges, that incredible ribbon of water flowing through the heart of this varied land. It stretched like a serpent from the icy heights of the Himalayas to where its forked fingers emptied into the Bay of Bengal beyond Calcutta.

In India white men are seldom seen carrying heavy bundles or walking long distances, especially under the merciless tropical sun, but these young men would start out each day before dawn stooping under the burden of their crude packs. At noon they would halt under a tree beside the sluggish waters. There they would devour a simple lunch, wash themselves and their clothing in the river, attend to their religious duties, and sprawl out on the bank for a short nap.

* * * *

In footing it through the country they saw all kinds of wild animals„tigers, elephants, boars, and wolves. At night they slept in native chokies or serias, wrapped in their blankets on the ground. In the darkness they often lay awake listening to the howls and screams of the roving beasts. They were never molested by any four-footed wanderer, nor by any deadly snake . . . . They had been warned about the perils of the journey, of the man-eating tigers, rogue elephants, wild boars, and slinking cobras. They had also been cautioned to keep alert for thugs and dacoits who were religious fanatics practicing crime as part of their faith. Still the elders plodded on, and they felt that the hand of God guided them.

One evening, after resting awhile in a native chokie, the elders prayed to the Lord to send someone to invite them to a home. Within a few minutes there was a knock at the door of the hut. At the entrance stood an elderly gentleman, who gave his name as Green, and a young man. Mr. Green asked permission to talk with the missionaries and insisted upon extending them the hospitality of his home. He was a storekeeper for the East India Company and a Swedenborgian. The next day he found them a house near his own and fitted it up as a refectory, chapel, and dormitory. Many eager and curious listeners crowded into this house to hear the missionaries preach, hanging onto every word from the lips of the two Americans.

[More details of this incredible missionary journey are given in Knight of the Kingdom, p. 95-102.] &. Such was one of the most amazing missionary adventures in Church history. It was made by two penniless Latter-day Saint elders, who lifted their voices to hundreds and brought sixteen new members into the Church. The story of their predecessors in Calcutta inspired Richard Ballantyne and his companions to heights of enthusiasm and determination to leave no stone unturned to spread their message throughout the length and breadth of Indiana.

Notice of the arrival of the missionaries was printed in the newspapers. Then plans were completed for the holding of a conference, the first to be held in Asia. . . at 10 a.m. of Friday, April 29, 1853. . . . Present were thirteen missionaries, the local elders, Meik and Saxton, and five women. During the meetings the missionaries were assigned to widely-scattered fields. . . . Richard Ballantyne was appointed to take charge of the Madras District with Robert Skelton . . . .

The heat was suffocating. As he had no money to buy tropical linens, Richard still wore his woolen suit. He prayed for the funds to purchase suitable clothing. Then his friend, Chauncy W. West, shared his limited supply of rupees and bought him two shirts, two pairs of trousers, a pair of suspenders, a vest, a neckerchief, a pair of socks, and a silk handkerchief.

At his first sermon in a public meeting Richard was heckled by a drunken intruder who defied all attempts to quiet him and loudly insisted upon contributing his opinions to the audience. Soon the missionary and the heckler were competing for a hearing. Finally Richard, in an impressive demonstration of sheer lung power, drowned out the interruption, much to the satisfaction of nearly everyone present.

It was not long before the magnitude of his mission began to dawn on Richard Ballantyne. A handful of Saints surrounded by a turbulent and prolific heathen population was like an oasis in the desert. He soon faced bitter condemnation for the doctrine of polygamy in a land where polygamy was prevalent and child marriage common. He was accused of vice and licentiousness by the vicious and licentious. Notwithstanding the hostility of the people he also felt the ravages of the climate. The temperature drained him physically and mentally. It exhausted him, and in his weakness he worried about his health and continually sought guidance and strength in prayer.

The open avowal of the doctrine of plurality of wives by the Church had flown as upon the wings of the wind and had preceded the arrival of the elders. It provided juicy front page scandal for editors. It gave ministers subject matter for many sermons. In public and in private it was thrown up to the missionaries on every hand, and they were generally shunned and looked upon with suspicion. The notoriety of the doctrine opened and closed doors with astonishing inconsistency. It became the focal point of discussion, and many times incited bitter controversy. At other times it created a curiosity that led to sincere investigation.

For the first time since he left the Great Salt Lake Valley, he realized that he was thrust completely upon the mercies of the Gentiles. He prayed more fervently and more often that the hearts of the people would be softened toward him. He wrote,

I realize that darkness reigns predominant in this land, and that it requires great watchfulness and diligence to keep our own lights trimmed and burning. We realize the necessity of what Brother Brigham told us "that we must have the Holy Ghost to be with us at all times and in all places." I cannot do without it. And I am willing to fast and pray; to be temperate and watchful if by any means I may enjoy its power.

It was often difficult for him to adjust to the customs of the country. . . . "I could not help feeling the degraded position to which many portions of the human family are reduced, below those of the same flesh and blood, and it was with considerable uneasiness of feeling that I was carried along in" [a palkie carried by four natives.]

* * * *

Richard's respect for the native diminished daily. . . . The native was inclined to follow that faith which offered the most in material advantages. There had been open bribery by missionaries of other churches, and what was once a charitable effort to provide Indian converts with employment . . . was soon abused. . . . In many places natives could no longer secure employment with the government unless they were first baptized into certain Christian denominations. It was inevitable that Christianity became a bargaining tool on the part of the Indians, and it is no wonder that the genuine Christianizing of the nation was like the bite of mosquito on the hide of an elephant. This background heaped a terrific barrier against the Latter-day Saints who could extend nothing in the way of material inducement, even if they were so disposed.

Another thing bothered the Scotsman. It was the callousness of the natives towards human misery and misfortune. Life was cheap, and no one seemed to become unduly alarmed over catastrophe or tragedy. Even the most commonplace daily occurrences verified this tendency among the natives.

One afternoon as Richard was strolling along the river bank he heard cries of a child. Turning around he was astonished to see a small native boy carrying a heavy load of bottles in a basket on his head. Tears were streaming down the young face; and the Scotsman, who always loved children, was deeply touched. He questioned the sobbing youngster to find out what ailed him, but the boy could not understand a word of English. Then Richard offered to take the load from his head. After the elder had set the basket on the ground, the dark-skinned child suddenly stopped crying but kept rubbing his head as if it were very sore. It had happened that the boy was overloaded but did not dare to take the basket from his head for fear that he might drop it and break the bottles. Many natives had passed who undoubtedly knew what troubled him but not one halted to render assistance. Sympathy seemed to be completely lacking. Perhaps pain and death were so common that the sensibilities of the natives had been dulled.

When a fire swept through the native quarter on another occasion, it left the settlement flattened and thousands homeless. Richard learned that such fires were frequent, and the people with emotionless resignation accepted their loss and stoically went about rebuilding their huts. It was but one of the daily tragedies that made the life of an Indian hard and cruel.

When the elders were entertained by the Meik's at their farm in Acra eight miles outside of Calcutta, they were treated with coconut milk and an adventure that further impressed them with the dangers that existed in this land. They were walking through a grove when they met one of the most feared of all animals, a wild boar which had killed a man a few days before. It was an ugly creature with razor-like tusks curling back from its jaws. At first sight it appeared that tusks in such a position could do no damage, but a wild boar has the habit of dashing forward past his victim and then swiftly pulling its head backwards to bring its sharp weapons into effective use. The boar snorted and lowered its head several times. It pawed the earth and started toward them and then stopped. Finally it thought better of attacking the men and with a few parting grunts retreated into the underbrush.

Each day the elders inquired of the ships leaving Calcutta for passage to their destinations. They had little or no money. They even tried to work their way as servants or seamen but without success. Lack of money and the prejudice against the Church deprived them of opportunity after opportunity. The monsoon season was approaching and the urgency of getting away was becoming more evident daily.

On May 15, Elders . . . West and . . . Dewey paid full fare and sailed . . . for the island of Ceylon. As Richard and the remaining elders bade them goodbye at the wharf, the sun was burning down at 98o in the shade and nearly 150o in the sun. Not used to the heat, the missionaries returned to their rooms exhausted and wringing wet with perspiration. They immediately made use of the bathing facilities which were provided in every European house.

On the following evening Elders Carter and Fotheringham embarked for Singapore. They had sold their watches to pay their passage. As Richard turned back to the city, a light shower was beginning to fall. He looked at the gathering clouds with concern, for the rains would soon come. Unless he could find passage within the next two weeks, he would be forced to remain in Calcutta until the monsoons had passed. He was distressed and worried, and watched the skies more anxiously each day.

* * * *Half way around the world in the Great Salt Lake Valley Huldah Meriah Ballantyne was scrubbing the ears of a squirming David when her son Richard ran into the cabin clutching a crumpled and dirty letter. David made a quick escape as his mother released him. Swiftly drying her hands she reached for the letter. She sank trembling to a stool and pried open the seal.

My beloved Meriah," it began. Tears at once blurred her eyes, but Huldah quickly dabbed at them with a corner of her apron. Richard, with a worried face, asked, "What's the matter, Mother?" She said nothing, but drew her boy close and kissed his cheek reassuringly.

Hurriedly she scanned the long paragraphs of religious discourses and words of admonition which were an inevitable part of every letter, hoping for assurance of her husband's good health and searching for something personal for herself, a word of love.

Her eyes stopped as she read,

While we try to know and do the commandments of God, I would have you to teach them unto our children also. Their young minds, of course, are tender. Yet they can learn of Christ. You can tell them of his example, in early years, and through the power of the Holy Spirit they will love to follow His steps. Read for yourself and then teach.

Meriah paused and let the letter drop to her lap. "Read for yourself and then teach." The words hammered in her mind. She looked about the bare room and at the pinched face of David now peering in the door. She thought of the one surviving horse of the team, of the land she tilled herself to bring in almost enough to sustain her family, of the long hours of labor in the open fields before she could return to her home and attend to the many tasks awaiting her there, the uncarded wool, the mending, and the broken chair which would need her skillful fingers.

Her mind pictured a typical day in her life, and there seemed to be no minute free to study all the doctrine and principles Richard advised to aid her in rearing her children.

Why just today," she thought, "when could I have paused to read or study?"

At five o'clock she had been up carding some long waiting wool to weave Delecta a coat. After caring for the children, milking the cow, and cleaning the breakfast dishes by seven, she put in about four hours in the fields. Only this letter had given her a respite in the middle of a day burdened with tasks which would drive her until long past sundown. Even then, after the children were tucked into bed, there was the mending to be done and the house to be straightened up for tomorrow. This afternoon the women were making lye for soap. Another day it would be dipping candles or making starch. All of these things were aside from the routine chores for the home and children.

Ah, no, Richard. I think you will do most of the studying of the scriptures for this family. When the wife must be the father and mother both, there is little time for pondering the spirit or the eternities. Today and tomorrow are too crowded to spend my time contemplating other worlds."

The thoughts that sped through her mind in the few minutes the letter was in her lap were interrupted when Richard brought David into the house dripping water and crying dismally.

He was playing in an irrigation ditch, a deep one too, Mother," Richard shouted. "I told him to come, but he wouldn't until I dragged him out."

Huldah sighed and glanced at the letter's closing, "May God bless you, my dear, is the last prayer of your ever devoted friend and husband." She folded the letter and put it into her apron pocket. Huldah felt very much alone and crushed David to her though he was wet and struggled wildly in her arms.

It was after supper before she could continue reading the long letter from India. The postmark showed that it had been enroute for over three months, and it was more than nine months since her husband left. She had written for a picture, partly to help the children remember their father, and here was the answer:

Our little David, you say, is a fine boy and looks like his father. I thank you for the compliment connected with this. You would like to have my likeness, but I am at present too poor to have it taken and how I could send it to you I know not. But the time may come when I will send it to you or come myself. I suppose you are afraid that my looks are so much disfigured either to love or know me; by the Small Pox I mean. But you need have no concern about that. Brother Skelton has just told me that he knows of no difference in my appearance. There is not a vestige of a mark left on my skin. I am getting old, it is true, and so are you, but still I do not feel any older than when I left, neither am I able to discover any change in my looks.

A smile was playing around the corner of Huldah's mouth, and she broke into a low laugh.

I have been thus particular to gratify your feelings (if indeed it is any gratification for you to know that I still feel and look like the same being) because I know that women are strange creatures, and mourn when an object that was once lovely in their eyes, though still retaining the same virtues, becomes changed in appearance.

I read in your letter of the death of our beloved brother, John Dickson. Everytime I think of his untimely end, and of the treachery of Indian cruelty in slaying him my eyes are suffused with tears.

Richard's last paragraph humbled her. She felt closer to her husband than she had in months. It was warm and comforting to a tired pioneer wife.

No man or woman on earth knows how to love each other and how to cooperate together for an eternal union, without the gospel, and the Holy Priesthood. This is the grand welding instrument, and for the life and immortality which it opens up to our view, how thankful we should ever feel.

It was sometime later when Huldah carefully placed the letter in the upper draw of her chest. She cherished Richard's words in her heart, and many would be the time she would reopen his letters in the quiet of the evening and reread them by candlelight to guide her and reassure her in this realistic struggle to live. She blew out the candle and lovingly tucked the covers around David and Richard and quietly lay down beside Delecta. It was long hours before sleep came.

Chapter VIII - Perilous Passage

High winds and heavy rains were beginning to whip in from the coast with increasing violence. Each day as the weather grew worse, Richard Ballantyne become more and more anxious about obtaining passage to Madras. He had contacted the American consul who politely but coolly gave him a note to the ship lines, but a note in the hands of a Latter-day Saint traveling without purse or scrip and representing a none too popular religion carried very little weight. One after another the booking agents turned him down, and some said things which were not exactly flattering.

He was desperate. It was getting late in the season for sea craft to risk the treacherous voyage, and there were no only two ships scheduled to make the trip until after the monsoons passed. If he could not go on either of these vessels, it meant remaining in Calcutta for at least three more months.

One of these ships was an English mail steamer, but when he asked for passage on it he was again refused. The other was a small sailing vessel, The John Brightman, skippered by Thomas D. Scott.

About six o'clock one morning Richard Ballantyne and Robert Skelton called on Captain Scott. They found him seated on the bridge of his small ship, partly dressed, drinking his morning coffee. He was a stout and grizzled Englishman, and his speech was blunt and coarse. There was a toughness about him that spoke of years of hard life on the seas.

Richard introduced himself and Elder Skelton as two Latter-day Saint missionaries from Salt Lake City in the Rocky Mountains who desired passage to Madras.

I cannot take you," grunted the seaman. "I have no steerage accommodations and cannot take you in the cabin. Besides I will have some lady passengers who would be offended if I were to take you along with them. I understand from the papers you have a bad name and would not be desirable company for them."

Although the missionaries were rapidly acquiring a rhinoceros-hide imperviousness to the needling insults of the outside world, they were somewhat jolted by the rebuff. Nevertheless Richard collected himself and doggedly asked:

Is there no price that will induce you to take us with you?"

The fare is three hundred and fifty rupees," grinned the old salt, showing a mouthful of jagged and yellow teeth, "But I cannot take you at any price for the reasons I have already given you."

The next morning the elders were again outside the cabin door where they found Captain Scott, as on the preceding visit, sipping his coffee. He raised his eyebrows in mild surprise at seeing them the second time. When they once more mentioned their wish to go with him, he firmly shook his head.

Still not discouraged the two missionaries presented themselves the third and fourth mornings, but still the captain stubbornly refused them passage although his eyes betrayed an admiring twinkle for their perseverance.

On the fifth morning the elders felt the need of reinforcement, and so they asked President Nathaniel V. Jones to accompany th4m and add his pleas to theirs. They found the captain in a dark mood. He was even more profane and rough in his conversation than he had been on their previous visits. Although the group chatted for fifteen minutes, the missionaries did not dare to bring up the subject again. After the interview President Jones said, "He will not take you. It's no use talking to such a man. He will grant no favors."

When Richard Ballantyne awoke on the sixth morning, his eyes flashed with Scotch obstinacy and he said to Elder Skelton who was sleeping with him, "Let's go down again and see the captain. We must go with him. Let us go in the name of the Lord."

They threw off their covering and hurriedly dressed. Before leaving they knelt before their bed. They prayed that their visit would be successful. They walked briskly to the Hoogly River where the little ship was quietly resting. The two missionaries went aboard and found Captain Scott checking invoices against boxes of cargo with a Parsee merchant. The skipper politely introduced them to the Indian, who immediately became interested and began questioning them about their mission and the doctrine of polygamy. When it became apparent that the conversation would continue for some time, the captain invited his visitors to be seated on the boxes. Then he, too, listened intently to the discussion.

Richard seeing that the captain had become engrossed in their story, quietly turned to him and said, "Captain Scott, we wish to go with you to Madras. We have only 85 rupees each. We need about ten rupees to provide a few articles that we need for the voyage, but we will give you the balance and promise you in the name of the Lord that you will go safely if you will take us with you."

With this solemn promise the Englishman's eyes brightened. He clapped his fist into the palm of is other hand and exclaimed, "It's a bargain. I'll sail in a week, so be ready by that time."

The next few days were filled with packing and farewells. Then Richard suddenly collapsed with one of those mysterious fevers which sweep over Indian cities. He was racked with chills, nausea, and pain in his muscles and joins. Before long he was almost reduced to a skeleton. When Saturday arrived, it was feared that he would not be able to sail with The John Brightman. But he was determined not to lose this one chance to make the trip to Madras before the monsoons struck with full fury. And so just before sailing time, he was bundled out of bed and carried aboard in a palanquin borne on the shoulders of four natives.

Robert Skelton tucked Richard into his berth immediately, and the ship unfurled its sails and started its perilous course down the Hoogly. The cool breezes over the water seemed to dispel Richard's fever. As the ship passed Acra, the elders saw a white flag which Sister Meik had hung from her house. It was her way of wishing them well.

Slowly Richard's strength returned. He sat for hours on a dilapidated deck chair reading . . . . He . . . thought of the kindness of the Latter-day Saints in Calcutta, and how readily they contributed the money to pay for his and Elder Skelton's passage to Madras. Most of the members had given from ten to thirty rupees which they could little afford. They were good people. . . . He wondered if he would ever see them again.

The John Brightman crept down the Hoogly almost at snail's pace. In following the river the ship never traveled at night. As soon as it grew dark, the anchor was dropped. She passed an Indigo factory and a native village called Fulter which had a bad reputation because of the character of its harlots. In this place prostitution was so widespread that a stranger was not safe from gangs of debased females prowling the streets. Most of these women were widows whose religious code and economic necessity drove them into degrading existence.

The little vessel was now at George's and Mary's Channel, the most dangerous part of the Hoogly. At this point tension mounted on board. On either side were half sunken ships with masts projecting above the water and quicksand. The channel was very narrow, and a strong headwind compelled The John Brightman to tack the full limits of the shrunken neck of water. Just as the small craft entered the narrowest section of the channel, she came upon a sight which filled everyone on board with terror. Dead ahead approaching at full sail with the wind at her stern loomed a large sailing vessel. Her horn was aimed directly at the broadside of the smaller ship which was in the process of tacking across the river. Passengers on both ships were panic-stricken. Both captains screamed orders at their crews frantically trying to avoid an almost inevitable crash. When the other ship was less than a hundred yards away, Captain Scott was wild. To him everything was lost. He rushed to where Richard was stretched out in his chair and shook his fist in the Mormon's face.

You promised me a safe passage to Madras," he yelled, almost beside himself.

Yes, Captain," replied the Scotsman quietly, "and you shall have it."

Impossible! Impossible! We are sunk," the captain thundered, waving his arms in rage.

He wheeled around and watched helplessly the oncoming ship. She was now fifty yards away, then twenty-five, now fifteen. Then something amazing happened. The huge vessel suddenly eased over and slid by the smaller craft missing her only by three feet!

For the remainder of the afternoon Captain Scott avoided the missionaries, but toward evening he came humbly to Richard and asked if he had any books. It was the nearest thing to an apology he could muster. They elder gave him a copy of Lorenzo Snow's tract, The Only Way to be Saved, and what is more surprising the salty and profane old seaman devoured it. * * * *

The treacherous river was now behind them. . . . Sanger Point was the last land on the Hoogly, and it was marked by a drab lighthouse. Then the ship slid into the Bay of Bengal where the blue, glassy swells contrasted vividly with the muddy turbulence of the river. The ship had passed through the Sand Heads, those large deposits of sand and mud which had trapped more than one vessel and usually required the skilled seamanship of a pilot to lead ships through to the sea.

The danger was by no means over. The coastline of India, particularly between Calcutta and Madras, offered few anchorages. It consisted of low flat and sandy beaches extending as much as a mile out from the mainland. In case of a typhoon a ship had little chance against such a shore. She would probably be beaten to death in short order. The sand would suck her timbers under so rapidly that mariners sailing past months later might not be able to see even the mainmasts showing. It was a coast that the best of navigators feared.

Captain Scott, in full realization of these hazards, tacked his ship to the southeast away from the coastline and out towards deep waters. It was not too soon either, for without warning the heavens seemed to explode. The sea heaved insanely, breaking over the ship time and time again, filling the cabins with water and drenching the occupants. Trunks floated inside the hold, and needless to say Richard Ballantyne was so seasick that he cared little whether the ship nosedived to Davy Jones' locker or took wings and flew away like a bird. Sailors were washed overboard, but fortunately they were hauled aboard with ropes without the loss of life. . . .

For two weeks the ship tossed in the churning sea. It was a life and death battle with the elements, for a typhoon in the Indian Ocean is the most terrible of storms. And Richard Ballantyne clung to his berth, trusting in his Lord. Only his faith and prayers kept his spirits high until the sea became calm and the skies clear.

Aboard the ship the galley served excellent food. Meals consisted of curry and rice, chicken, duck salt beef, fish, hard bread, beer or wine, potatoes, and sometimes dill in place of curry. Water however, was rationed. Each passenger was allowed only three pints a day for cooking, drinking, and washing. In the hot and sultry climate the shortage of water added greatly to the misery of the raging seas.

There was a spirit of friendliness on the part of the crew toward the elders. On one occasion Mr. Bolton, the chief mater, overheard Richard say that he had no more clean shirts. In the evening the officer sent for the missionary and persuaded him to use three of his own.

On the other hand, one of the two lady passengers, Mrs. Seally, almost declared open warfare against the missionaries because of the interest her daughter, Miss Wall, had shown toward their teaching. The elderly woman harbored an intense dislike for the elders, and she suspected that her lovely daughter had manifested more than an ordinary curiosity in the work of the missionaries.

One day as the ship neared Madras, Mrs. Seally asked Captain Scott how many days it would take before arriving in port.

Give me a wind," boasted the old seaman, "and I'll take you there in a day and a half."

That I cannot do," snorted the tartar, loud enough for Richard to overhear, "but maybe these Mormons can spare enough to take us there."

To Richard there was nothing humorous about her remark. He afterwards soberly announced that the old woman would most surely be condemned for her rebellious spirit. This hostility did not prevent his holding classes with Miss Wall and Captain Scott; and when Mrs. Seally was confined to her cabin with seasickness, he multiplied his missionary efforts.

It was July 24, the anniversary of the settling of Utah, when The John Brightman cast her anchor in the Madras Roads. Richard wrote,

We are in sight of Madras and St. Thomas' Mount. The latter place we look to with feelings of peculiar interest as in it we hope to find two brethren. . . . . Between St. Thomas and Madras there appears to be a large forest or jungle. As we sail nearer we see many ships laying anchored in the roads, while still further in the distance we observe the steeples of churches, lighthouse„one of the best in the world„and many houses, obscured however by the smoke and sultry atmosphere of the climate. Still further in the distance almost obscured in fog we see dimly a range of low mountains or hills. Here there is no harbor for ships which operates materially against the commercial prosperity of the place, as it is very dangerous for ships at certain seasons of the year.

Richard remembered that it was on this coast that Thomas, one of the original apostles of Christ, preached and died by being run through with lances. It meant to him that this land had already been consecrated for the preaching of the Gospel. Yet he wondered what trials awaited him.

Chapter IX -- Land of Darkness

The Madras surf was pounding out its lacework of froth and spume. The air had been momentarily cleansed by the flushing torrents of the southwest monsoons, but the sticky heat was again enveloping the city. Anchored at safe distances from shore were ships of all nations riding their taut moorings. There were high-masted schooners, brigs, barkentines, clipper ships, coal-burning steamships, raid-sailed junks, and smaller native boats.

Pulling away from the John Brightman was a strange native craft of batten grass sewn tightly together over a wooden framework, pliable enough to withstand the shocks of the foaming reefs where a white man's boat would be shattered to pieces. Among the forty occupants were Elders Richard Ballantyne and Robert Skelton, late of the territory of Utah, and the white-bearded old tar, Captain Thomas D. Scott. The latter was pointing out the landmarks of this Indian city.

There she is, old Madras," he shouted above the roar of the beach. "Don't be deceived by the European buildings with their two-storied colonnades and piazza fronts. They make a good curtain to hide what lies behind. But on the other side of that curtain you'll see the real squalor and misery of the native quarters. Yes, she's a peculiar city. There's a lot of show about her, but you'll find underneath a heart of granite and more rottenness than you care to see. Yet, I suppose like the rest of us you'll love and hate her by turns, and I dare say you'll never know her."

Captain Scott was pleased with this description. In fact, he was pleased with himself about many things. He believed he had found in these two elders something he needed very much. He wanted to prove his affection for them.

That's a huge lighthouse," ventured Elder Skelton.

Yes, it is," replied the skipper, enjoying the awed expressions on his friends' faces. "One of the finest in the world, and it needs to be in these parts. Many a vessel has been dashed to bits off this shore. When it blows a ship had better head out to deep waters."

The boat was swept up the sandy beach. It was immediately surrounded by milling natives who jabbered noisily with wild gestures. After cursing the hanger-ons and giving orders with seaman-like efficiency, Captain Scott pushed the elders into a gharri which brought them to the Madras House, one of the best hotels in the city. Here the sailor arranged their board and room for half the regular rate, gave Richard a pair of shoes and fifty silver rupees, and supplied the money for publishing two thousand tracts.

The peace and quiet of Madras were shaken by the coming of the Mormon missionaries. Complacent pastors were no longer complacent. Christians with "saved" written across their features were indignant, and old dowagers and prim maids of the parish polished their armor of virtue. Even the natives were curious. Newspapers carried the story of the arrival of the elders, and soon editorials with a clergy flavor mysteriously appeared in the form of a campaign against the two young men.

But the missionaries plunged into their work with an energy rare in that torrid climate. Within ten days after their landing they had published a thousand copies of Lorenzo Snow's tract, The Only Way to be Saved, and a thousand copies of Parley P. Pratt's Proclamation of the Gospel.

And the work was not easy. Notices of meetings were posted on Madras street corners. The missionaries went from door to door preaching their message. They held cottage meetings at the homes of investigators. They held meetings for the public. Richard wrote replies to the newspapers which printed scurrilous articles against them. A few were published without comment. He asked a Reverend Anderson for permission to use his schoolhouse for meetings but was refused on the grounds of "inconsistency." Friends they had made in tracting were often reluctant to offer their homes for meetings in fear of the stigma which might come upon them for associating with the despised Mormons. Yet many believed, but "not one in fifty who believe the Gospel will embrace it."

Soon the attacks of the newspapers had their effect. The proprietor of the Madras House was alarmed by the opposition against his guests, and one day the missionaries found a note requesting them to leave the hotel immediately. After hearing of their eviction Captain Scott gave them another fifty rupees.

Before the elders moved from the Madras House, a well-dressed native called on them. After a long conversation about doctrine he expressed his amazement that the two Americans could travel so far and preach so sincerely with out pay. He was told that the Lord provided for them.

John Charles, a Latter-day Saint of St. Thomas Mount, sent word that he would provide a home and a hall for the missionaries to hold meetings if they would live at that place. The offer was accepted. When he arrived at the residence of Charles, Richard recalled that some time before he had seen this same house in a vision while he was in Calcutta. He felt it was a sign of better things to come.

After the elders were again settled in a home, Richard received a note from Captain Scott. The seaman explained that he was returning to Calcutta. He desired to baptized but deemed it wiser to wait until his next trop to Madras. He instructed the missionary to call at his financial agents, Hall and Towle, for sixty rupees left in his name. It was with regret that Richard parted from his friend. He liked the old captain, and the last time they were together he gave him a Bible. Captain Scott was moved by the gift and expressed his hearty thanks with assurances that it would be handed down to his posterity.

* * * *From the press and pulpit came a deluge of hostility and opposition against the elders. . . . Indignant at the unprovoked abuse, Richard wrote a reply which was published in the Madras Circulator. It was only through the influence of two friends . . . that the paper was persuaded to print his article. The result was a large turnout at the next public meeting.

But the weight of the oppression was heavy, and slowly but surely it gained ground. Friends were intimidated. People were forbidden by their pastors to attend the services held by the elders. Notices of the meetings were torn down. Doors were closed when the missionaries tried to tract from house to house. Since the government was in the hands of Europeans who controlled not only secular but also ecclesiastical activities as well, their powers were marshaled against the two humble Latter-day Saints who were far form home and penniless in a strange land.

It was not long before Richard was compelled to subsist almost entirely on bread and water, and it was not long before it told on his health. As he had no servants, he went to the bazaar every morning to buy bread. From some kindly neighbors he procured his water. On these missions he encountered the glares and impudent mutterings of natives, for such a thing was unheard of among the Europeans. In the eyes of a native he not only lost caste but also deprived low-caste Hindus of employment. Featherbedding had long been a fine art in India.

* * * *

Most active of [the missionaries] enemies was the superintendent of missions. He was present at most of their public meetings, which he endeavored in every way to break up and create hostility against the elders. The audiences were composed largely of men. "Ladies I suppose are afraid to come and hear an advocate for heavenly marriage preach. Great is the darkness and opposition," he wrote.

Not all of the meetings were failures, however. After advertising in the local newspapers that a discourse would be preached on the scriptural evidence of the Book of Mormon, the missionaries were surprised at the response.

At half past six, September 9th, the people assembled to hear the world that should be preached. A crowded house, and lobby full; wonderfully attentive. We have not had such a meeting before. All went off quietly. Many held up their hands for me to have an extra meeting on Monday evening. Many shook hands with me. About 670 tracts were distributed. Several wanted to buy the Book of Mormon. I had none to sell. One lady next door asked for the Book of Mormon to read. I gave her my copy. No ladies have been present in our meetings before. One gentleman wanted a private interview. Most of the congregation knelt down with me in the opening prayer.

The elders preached not only in Madras but also in Vepery, Poonymallee, Rioparum, and Black Town. At the latter place they spoke at a "small meeting of natives, mostly well taught in the English language. One of them interpreted. They prepared a good supper for us of which we partook after meeting. It consisted of light bread, mutton and plantains. We were invited back next Saturday day evening."

About this time a large conference of Protestant leaders was held ad Madras. One of the featured speakers made a vicious attack against the elders and the doctrines they taught. A young native, employed in the tract society, arose in the congregation and rebuked the preacher, accusing him of not knowing what he was preaching against. "He defended our cause and was so disgusted with the priest that he and two others left the meeting. They came immediately to us and we gave them much comfort and instruction. They want us to preach to them twice a week. . . ."

The exertions and strain of the work were beginning to affect Richard's health. Typical of the first evidences of physical breakdown is this entry in his journal: "My health has been feeble for two days, partly from exposure to the hot sun, walking from the Mount without an umbrella, and partly through overexertion and lack of nourishment. I have been living (and still am), mostly on bread and water for nearly three weeks, and that rather sparingly."

At one public meeting a man who had once been a Catholic priest approached the missionaries and said, "Thirty years ago I was dissatisfied with our religion and have not found peace since. My bosom has found a lack. We need a physician. We are sick. We need the Holy Spirit, and if you can tell us what to do we will do it."

Richard replied, "If you believe in the Lord Jesus Christ with all your heart, will repent of all your sins, and be baptized in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, you shall receive a remission of your sins, and the Holy Spirit by the laying on of the hands. Then shall you have joy; then shall you have peace; then shall your heart be filled."

The old man broke down and wept. Tears filled the eyes of his sons, who had accompanied him. In the evening they were again in the congregation.

* * * *

Late one afternoon eight natives called at the elders' bungalow. They came to be taught, and Richard recounts a frequent missionary experience:

I testified to them of the origin of this work, and that the true and Living God always revealed himself to his faithful people, and does now to prophets and apostles, and requires all men to be baptized for the remission of their sins, and that all the priests must do it also or be damned. After they had gone away three of them returned with a loaf of bread, a few plantains and two oranges. I bless them in the name of the Lord for their kindness. It seems as though the Lord was angry with the Europeans, for scarce one of them has given us a mouthful to eat since we came and yet they know we have come in the name of the Lord without purse or scrip. But we have been amply provided for, having money enough to live well, yet we have generally lived on bread and water the last six weeks. We do not wish to pamper our appetites, while the people are perishing for the words of life.

As the days passed, the struggle for existence became more difficult. The missionaries had to rely entirely on the uncertain generosity of friends and members. Sometimes this generosity was seriously absent. . . . . "[Some of the Europeans] have helped us . . . but all that . . . has been given would have done but little in sustaining the Cause, had not the Lord raised up for us a friend in Captain T. D. Scott."

Richard had hoped that his friend and benefactor, Captain Scott, would be baptized. When the old seaman finally returned to Madras, the elders found him after several days search at Hall and Towle's office. The captain informed them that he was no longer interested in their religion. It was evident that their enemies had done their work well. It was a discouraging failure for Richard, and he afterwards said, "Oh, what a changed man! The Spirit of God had left him. He thus fell into darkness, and did not care to see us. But the work for which God has raised him up had been accomplished, and he fell back into the ways of the world. But surely a great reward awaits him; and by myself or my posterity shall all the ordinances of salvation be attended to for him"

Another blow fell when two of the members, Charles and William, upon whom the elders hoped to build a branch, became disaffected and asked that their names be withdrawn from the Church. The foundation for their branch was made of sand which blew away with the wind. But there were baptisms. Eleven persons in all were converted.

* * * *As Richard became better acquainted with Hinduism, he became more disgusted with it. Here was a religion which had become so overgrown with the brambles of superstition that it was the largest single obstacle to missionary success. . . . The Hindu festivals were often orgies of licentiousness and excess. [He wrote:]

Generation after generation have been so long sunk in this trifling and debasing idolatry, . . . that they have but little stable relish for sound religious instruction Anything that is externally attractive is more greedily followed after. . . . The Latter-day Saints, having neither pomp and show, nor worldly riches to confer have less influence than others.

Not only were the Indians suffering spiritually but also their economic condition was desperate. One day when Richard Ballantyne was describing the advantages of Utah a highly-educated native said to him, "If you can benefit the temporal condition of the people they will become Mormons, but while their bellies are empty they will not hear."

Richard realized the truth of this remark, for it was only too apparent that spiritual famine follows temporal famine. He answered the Indian, "I would gladly relieve their wants and ameliorate their temporal condition if I could, but this I have no prospect of doing at the present. The situation is truly distressing."

* * * *

The structure the missionaries had tried to build was crumbling away rapidly. Samuel Pascal, one of the promising converts, succumbed to the pressure and turned against the Church; and it was heartbreaking when they had to discipline Elder Robert Owen for continued disobedience. Natives who believed dared not be baptized in fear of losing their employment. Doors were closed, and the mission was losing headway.

Then to make matters worse Richard's health broke. For days he had been losing his appetite because of the excessive heat and lack of proper food. Finally one morning he was unable to get out of bed. Fever, kidney pains, and muscular aches left him in a precarious condition. His breathing was obstructed by congested lungs, and he was too weak and sick to speak. John Mills, who was a physician, told the missionary he must leave India as soon as possible.

When word of Richard's condition reached President Jones, he ordered his immediately release and instructed him to return home without delay. Elder Skelton would now be left alone. It decided that he would travel into the interior and preach to the inland villages for a time.

When his strength returned sufficiently, Richard began planning his departure. In order to raise money for his passage back to America, he published the tracts he had written or distributed in one volume. In this book he included A proclamation of the Gospel by P. P. Pratt, The Only Way to be Saved by Lorenzo Snow in addition to his own writings. The latter consisted of A Reply to the Rev. T. Richards, A Second Reply to the Rev. T. Richards, the first four issues of the Millennial Star and Monthly Visitor printed in Madras, and A Dialogue on Polygamy.

Passage was soon arranged on the brig Royal Thistle, bound for England under the command of Captain Robert Wright. Richard told the skipper that he was traveling without purse or scrip. The captain said that he would trust him for the money on the condition that he furnish his own provisions. Again Richard packed his belongings and prepared to move.

Chapter X - The Long Voyage Home

Sick in body and depressed in spirit, Richard Ballantyne stepped into the native boat which bore him out through the rough surf to the brig Royal Thistle. It was exactly one year to the day that he had landed on the shores of madras full of hope and enthusiasm for the mission which lay before him. But it had been a year of hardship and disappointment. No longer did he look upon his labors in India as a fruitful chapter in Latter-day Saint missionary endeavor. Instead he felt that, while he had worked hard, he had failed; that he had been cruelly rejected. He was empty-hearted and lonely.

I had no regrets at leaving Madras . . . . We had done all we could for the salvation of the people, and they had treated our message with cold indifference. The priests and editors had done all in their power to starve us out of the place, by counseling the people not to receive us into their houses, nor aid us in any way, and even where we were entertained they labored to have us put out of doors. They hindered our progress in other ways by publishing lies to the people through press and pulpit, and by threatening to injure those who gave heed to our instructions. I feel as though I was relieved from a station where but little more can, at present, be done.

Once on board the ship he went directly to his cabin where he unpacked his luggage. As he sat on the edge of his berth trembling with weakness, he fingered the gifts he had received from his friends. There was for Huldah a Burmese work-box, a present to her from Miss Stevenson. A hand-carved Burmese idol and a handsome ivory fan were gifts from Mrs. Caffarly. Brother McCarthy had given him a 'Satin Stocking Cap' or nightcap, and from Brother Barnett he received a silk handkerchief. Other gifts included cotton and linen trousers, flannel shirts, blue checked trousers, "so," coats, vests, a blanket, a mattress and pillows, and a silver watch and chain. He surveyed the lavish collection and thought of the many months of near-starvation, when even small gifts of food were so few. It was ironic, and a faint smile broke over his pale features.

Captain Robert Wright was a man of unpredictable moods. Like so many masters of sailing ships he was capable of extreme ruthlessness and tyranny over the men of his vessel. He was not particularly interested in Richard's missionary zeal. In fact he looked upon religion with a certain amount of suspicion, and he was irritated at the far-reaching claims of this new faith. As long as religion did not enter their conversation, Captain Wright and Richard Ballantyne could get along well together. But the master was determined that no man was going to convert him to any church. On the other hand, nothing would have brought more pleasure to the elder than to make a Latter-day Saint out of the captain. Both were strong-minded men, and both could speak their minds freely. As a result there was an occasional rift between them. Yet the captain was a man of character and integrity, even if he did not want his life complicated by religion. When Richard thanked him for taking him on his vessel and promised that the Lord would most surely reward his kindness, the weather-beaten seaman snorted, "I did not take you on board hoping to receive any reward from the Lord, but because you were a stranger in a foreign land, without money and in a sickly, dangerous condition."

Richard ate at the captain's table. Since he considered Richard more or less of a clergyman, Captain Wright thought it would be appropriate for him to preach to the sailors on Sundays. Although all but two of the crew were Roman Catholic, the elder began enjoying such astonishing success that the skipper decided that his ship was not going to be turned into a parochial seminary Therefore, he first tried to discourage the missionary as gently as possible, but gentleness to a man fired with the gospel was not sufficient. The sailors were getting too interested for him to stop now. Finally the captain ordered Richard to cease and desist from his preaching, and so the campaign of the enthusiastic elder was driven underground.

* * * *

After about a month at sea the peaceful voyage was marred by the snapping of the main top-mast by a sudden gust of wind. One of the sails was also ripped to rags, but there were no injuries. For two days all hands were busy hauling down the wrecked mast and putting up a new one with the old rigging.

But the balmy days were not to continue long. No sooner had the mast been repaired and the rigging again hauled into place when the storm which had been expected broke violently. On September 9 Richard wrote,

The sea runs very high. The waves dash against the ship with great force. At noon a portion of the bulwarks was stove in by a heavy sea, and two men knocked down on deck. Great quantities of water are launched on deck by the surges of the waves, drenching the men's clothes, but not otherwise doing much damage. As we are sailing before, and not against the sea, our progress is good and pleasant. We are about sixty miles from the nearest point of land on the eastern coast of Africa, between Port Natal and Algoa Bay.

Then he penned this description of the storm:

The sea presents a foaming, broken, rugged appearance; like a piece of land that is diversified with knolls, ridges, hills, valleys and ravines. As we ascend one of these high ridges, or hills of water, the ship labors to get to its summit, then pitches down, rolling over on the lee side, into the liquid valley. Now a heavy surging billow takes her on the weather side, heaving her over, and, if we are at table, rolling plates, dishes, tureens, and their contents, if not carefully watched, on to the floor, sometimes pouring the contents of a soup plate, or a dish of tea or coffee into our laps.

After its wrathful display the storm finally blew itself out as suddenly as it began. Then a dead calm followed, and the stillness of the ocean and the air was almost weird. But soon a wind came and carried the Royal Thistle past Algoa Bay and Port Natal at Point Hood on the coast of Africa.

* * * * As the ship was rounding Cape Angillas and the Cape of Good Hope, another storm struck. For three days "we were tossed about by a terrible tempest. . . .

It was during these times that Richard occupied himself composing maxims. He entitled this one a "Golden Maxim":

I have no rights only what God has given me, and will give me from time to time. I have no honor, or glory, or priesthood, only as it has come, or may come through God, and His servants. I cannot overthrow them, but if I rebel, or seek what does not belong to me, they can overthrow me. The Lord God Almighty keep me from this, and make me obedient.

Again he wrote:

As we observe changes in nature, so also do we observe changes in man. The sun does not always shine with a beaming and resplendent countenance neither is the countenance of a man always radiated with light and joy. . . . Clouds and darkness often obscure the light and heat of the sun, and so does adversity, doubt, fear and perplexing cares, obscure the mind, and keep the light of truth from gladdening his won heart and lighting up the countenance of others. . . . The physical world often presents to us nothing but darkness and gloom. The reason is because the light of the sun is hindered from shining on it. So also it is with our intellectual vision. Sometimes nothing but darkness and gloom overspread all our prospects; and the reason is because the light of the Holy Ghost is hindered from shining into our souls. As in the natural so in the spiritual world. But as in the natural world, when obscured by clouds, we hope shortly to see these clouds pass away, and the sun shine forth with increased glory; so also let us hope for a brighter sunshine when for a moment a dark cloudy sky thickens around our intellectual vision. Let us look out, and hope, and watch for better days, for they are not far distant.

* * * *

[Richard includes in his journal many descriptions of "denizens of the deep" and the progress of the ship in its journey around the world which have been omitted from this telling.]

After the captain had forbidden the missionary to preach to the sailors, he suddenly became ill and was confined to his bed. Richard nursed him throughout the sickness, washing him and combing his hair in addition to rendering medical aid. The patient, who had often ridiculed the elder, said, "I don't know what I should have done if you had not been here."

It was then the master changed his attitude. No longer was the seaman cynical and quarrelsome, but he exhibited a "marvelous degree of kindness and respect. The Lord had wrought a great change in his feelings toward me."

* * * * With the captain ill the situation became more serious when the crew came down with scurvy. A passing ship was signaled with a distress flag. The mate, shouting through a trumpet, asked if she had any fresh provisions to spare. The other vessel invited him to come aboard and see what supplies he wanted. A boat was lowered, and four men boarded the other ship. They returned with a supply of sugar, tea, wine, whiskey, fresh meat and salmon, potatoes, turnips, onions, cabbage, and some late English newspapers. From the papers it was learned that England and Russia were at war and that England was suffering reverses.

* * * * On November 27 Richard recorded this entry:

This is a lovely morning, and my heart has been full to overflowing because of the great and marvelous kindness of my God and Father. Since last Tuesday nothing extraordinary has transpired. We have seen many ships, generally outward bound from Great Britain. . . . We exchanged time with an American ship to whom we hoisted the English flag, hand he in return hoisted American colors. . . . The Captain, after one month's illness, was able to be on deck for a few minutes. The steward, also, is getting well, and has gone out on deck this morning. Every providence is favorable to us, excepting the contrary head winds and squally weather. We might have been in London two weeks ago, but for some cause or other we have been "tacking" hither and thither about two weeks near the mouth of the English Channel.

One day as Richard paced the decks a group of sailors gathered around him to ask questions about his church. The elder remarked that he regretted being denied the privilege of preaching to them.

All hands on board are very anxious to hear you, and we weary very much for the privilege," replied one of the crew.

I do not regret this very much," said the missionary, "since you have all heard the Gospel and understand it. I could only exhort you to obey it."

This is true," came the answer. "We all understand it; it has been taught so very plain and clear. Yet we want to know more."

And so Richard instructed them at every opportunity.

* * * *

On December 6, the Royal Thistle anchored off London. . . . Richard immediately boarded a railroad train for Liverpool. He located the Mission Office at 107 Finch Street and was warmly greeted by President Franklin D. Richards.

You are the very man whom the Lord hath sent me," exclaimed President Richards, "Even as he sent the Ram to Abraham, and I want you to take charge of a company of Saints to Saint Louis, a part of whom are going out to the emigrating Fund."

After Richard had recovered from his astonishment, the mission head continued, "This will be a good work for you, and an honorable accomplishment of your mission, and that which will be a satisfactory conclusion of it to yourself."

Brother Richards, this is a disappointment to my hopes," said Richard, "as I had intended to tarry two years longer and preach the Gospel, but I have looked to you as the channel through which the Lord would reveal His will concerning me, and I therefore feel cheerfully to obey your counsel and go home with your blessings."

I never was more positive in my feelings concerning any matter, and you may now go home with the blessings of the Lord; or if you wish to return to this country after you get to St. Louis, you may do so." With this last word of instruction, Elder Richards provided the missionary with four pounds and ten shillings to buy a few necessities.

The immigrants were already aboard the Helios, but the vessel had sprung a leak while anchored in the river. It was hauled into dry dock for repairs, and the Latter-day Saints repacked their belongings and left the ship. In the meantime an earnest search was being made for another ship. At last passage was arranged on the Charles Buck.

Last minute details were being completed. The luggage was loaded on board, and then the immigrant converts filed into the vessel and were efficiently assigned berths below decks. Richard received last minute instructions from Elders Franklin D. Richards and Cyrus Wheelock and was formally set apart as captain of the company. The mail was also distributed before leaving, and Richard found a letter of commendation from President Nathaniel V. Jones for his missionary service in India.

As the Charles Buck was towed down the River Mersey by a steam tug, Richard called the company of immigrants together. Elder Mark Fletcher read the following letter:

15 Wilton Street, Liverpool

December 20th 1854

To the Latter-day Saints on board the Charles Buck.This certifies that Elder Richard Ballantyne is appointed to preside over the Company of Saints sailing on board the Ship Charles Buck hence to New Orleans, and they are here by exhorted to receive his councils and abide in the same, that the blessings of life and salvation may attend them on their journey. Elders Mark Fletcher and Eric G. M. Hogan are appointed to aid Elder Ballantyne as his counselors in conduction the affairs of the Company while crossing the sea; and inasmuch as the Company continues united, remember their prayers in the season thereof, and are obedient to the instructions of their Presidency, they will be blessed with a safe and prosperous voyage.
Signed by F. D. Richards
President of the Church of
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Britain.

Then Richard Ballantyne spoke to the company. He urged them to refrain from grumbling and to accept willingly their responsibilities in keeping the vessel clean and performing the tasks assigned to them. After these instructions he was sustained by a vote of confidence from the four hundred members.

Again Richard was given first-class accommodations. Here he was on the last leg of his journey around the world and at no time had he less than the best cabin passage! For a penniless missionary it was an amazing achievement.

As the ship broke into the open sea, the Scotsman organized his daily routine. He discovered that he was not only the leader of the company but also its father confessor and physician. Since there was no doctor on the vessel, he rendered medical aid along with the laying on of hands for the healing of the sick. He developed his favorite remedies. One of these remedies was a cup of "composition tea," a mysterious mixture which seemed to be applicable to almost any ill.

Every morning he made his rounds and fed this homemade potion to almost everyone of the sick list from colicky babies to sailors with broken legs. While he was a sympathetic doctor, he did not trifle with any patient who puckered up his face and tried to avoid taking his share of the treatment. The missionary spoke sternly to the recalcitrant and commanded that a liberal dose be taken.

There were other remedies, too. To the patient with dysentery he prescribed this concoction: "Take one pint of good vinegar, and a half a pound of loaf sugar, and simmer them together in a pewter vessel with a pewter cover. Let the patient drink of this during the day, a small quantity at a time, either clear or accommodated to the palate by diluting it with water." As might be expected, many doses were liberally diluted with water.

For a cough medicine he offered this prescription: "take a paregoric elixir, two drachms; Carbonate of Soda, one drachm; treacle, one ounce; barley water, five ounces„mix. A tablespoon full to be taken frequently when the cough is troublesome."

He also included in his prescription book a formula for compounding digestive pills: "Take of rhubarb, five grains; ginger, three grains. Make into two pills with a very small quantity of water; to be taken before dinner daily, in debility of the stomach."

He derived this purgative from some unexplained source: "One scruple to half a drachm of rhubarb is a sufficient dose for an adult. It acts both as a purgative and astringent. . . . and then in case of diarrhea checks it."

As he was the undisputed spiritual adviser of his company, he dealt with one of the first problems which troubled him in a meeting held January 22, 1855:

The meeting being opened with singing and prayer, I arose and spoke to the sisters, especially the unmarried, to beware of associating with unbelievers, for what fellowship hath light with darkness, and what communion hath she that believeth with an infidel; and so far as preaching the gospel to the sailors is concerned, the sisters are relieved from all responsibility.

He then called upon the women to pledge themselves to observe this counsel. It was unanimously agreed that the ladies would hold themselves aloof from the sailors and non-members. Only one was to violate this pledge, and she apparently frolicked with the sailors with such enjoyment that she felt constrained to request her own excommunication.

At the close of this meeting Richard united in marriage two young couples, after duly explaining to them the holy nature of the ordinance.

It was on January 26 that the first tragedy of the voyage occurred. It was a beautiful morning. The wind had died down, and the great sail ropes had relaxed. Children were playing around the rigging. Suddenly a strong breeze sprang up and tightened the ropes, which caught a seven-year-old boy and threw him into the sea. As the passengers and horrified parents crowded the rail, a boat filled with sailors was hastily lowered over the side. The frantic father and mother saw the child lying on his back on the surface for a few seconds, and then suddenly disappear under the waves. By the time the boat reached the spot, no sight of the boy could be found. The parents were heartbroken, and Richard tried in every way to comfort them.

A week later there was a second accident. As the ship pitched and tossed on the swells, a small girl of eleven years was walking carefully across the deck. Then, without warning, a large block of wood broke loose and swept along the passageway striking her on the leg. The captain and Richard Ballantyne pressed the gaping wound together and sewed it closed with needle and thread. The girl bravely endured the agony and was soon on the road to recovery.

One evening as the food was being rationed, a startling discovery was made. A check of the supplies revealed that large quantity was not reloaded when the transfer was made from the Helios to the Charles Buck. It was either an oversight or a matter of theft. In any case, the fact remained that there was not enough food to provide a wholesome diet throughout the voyage. Nothing could be done except cut the daily rations, and so for the rest of the voyage the immigrants were reduced to a minimum subsistence.

Nor were all the dangers from short rations and the elements, for one afternoon the captain sighted a pirate ship carrying a gang of cutthroats and robbers. It caused excitement bordering on panic, but the quick-witted seaman ordered every person on the ship to appear on deck. As there were upwards of eight hundred in all, this great number of people caused the pirates to reconsider whatever designs they had for capturing the ship. They tacked their vessel about and sailed away.

Richard was determined that there would be no idle hands in his company, and so before leaving England he arranged for the purchase of a large quantity of canvas. He then set the passengers to work cutting out the material and sewing it into tents and wagon covers.

Frequent meetings were held, sometimes at night under lanterns between the main mast and galley. Singing and preaching kept spirits high, and evidence of grumbling was immediately dealt with by the organization leaders. The immigrants were divided into four wards, over [each of] which was a president and two counselors.

* * * *

The Charles Buck fourth strong headwinds most of the voyage, which slowed the speed considerably and rapidly exhausted the already inadequate supply of food. . . . Finally the ship approached the mouth of the Mississippi. During the voyage the company had manufactured twenty-one tents and twenty wagon covers for the trip across the plains.

* * * Richard Ballantyne's company traveled by river boat to St. Louis, where they were greeted by Elder Erastus Snow of the Council of Twelve Apostles. . . . At St Louis the Latter-day Saints remained for a week waiting for the ice to clear from the upper Mississippi. Elder Snow in the meantime had engaged a steamboat to take the immigrants to Atchison. After Elder Snow informed Richard Ballantyne of the arrangements, the thin Scot said, "Brother Snow, I would like to see the boat.

We will go down to the wharf," replied Erastus Snow.

They found the steamboat old and dilapidated. After his inspection Richard suddenly blurted out, "Brother Snow, I don't feel right here."

Elder Snow also was doubtful about the condition of the vessel. He said, "We'll look for another."

The two men inspected several other vessels. Then they found a new steamboat. They went through it carefully examining the sturdy oaken timbers, the shiny brass, and clean cabins. Richard's eyes lit up.

This will do, Brother Snow."

The name of the boat was the Michigan, and a contract was made with its captain. The next day the vessel which had been originally chartered met with an accident on the river and was sunk. But for an uneasy feeling, a flash of inspiration, if you will, the lives of hundreds of Latter-day Saints might have been lost.

Elder Snow appointed Richard captain of the Poor Fund Company. At Atchison he assembled 402 persons, 45 wagons, 220 oxen, 24 cows, 3 horses, and a mule for the trek to Utah. There were three other companies of about the same size which traveled ahead under orders that in case of trouble with the Indians to fall back and consolidate all four companies under the command of Richard Ballantyne. Recently the redskins had murdered many settlers crossing plains, which made a common defense imperative.

On the 24th of July, one after Richard had left Madras, he mounted his white horse and led the company. It was a day of joyful celebration, not only in commemoration of the arrival of the pioneers in Salt Lake Valley, but also because it marked the last stage of the long journey to Zion for the immigrants. As the wagons moved out of camp with flags flying from staffs, the women ran alongside the column bedecking the heads of oxen with garlands of prairie flowers and throwing wreaths around the necks of the men.

That night the spirit was still festive. After the camp was laid out, the women busied themselves making candy, rice puddings, and apple tarts. The men occupied themselves in painting a fourteen foot flag on some heavy canvas-like cloth with a star representing Deseret and on the top a spread eagle with the ribbon motto, "O God Save Israel." Under the eagle was a large bee hive with the inscription, "We'll never give up the Ship." On the other side of the flag was painted the Star of Deseret with a large beehive bearing the words, "Glory to God and Brigham Young."

Then came the climax to the first day. The women rummaged through boxes and trunks for their finest dresses, and Richard Ballantyne called the company together in the wagon corral and directed William Pitt to play his violin for the evening dancing. After a supper of venison roast and boiled buffalo with puddings and cakes, President Ballantyne addressed the company on the blessings and privileges they enjoyed. After a few more addresses and an open-air ball, the first day on the plains was closed with prayer.

From no on the days fell into a pattern of toil and heat and dust. Discipline and order were maintained in the march of the company. At about four o'clock in the morning the blare of a bugle stirred the camp into activity. Within fifteen minutes each man carrying his rifle responded to roll call. Then military drill followed. After breakfast the wagons were greased and loaded, and by seven the oxen were yoked and waiting. The bugle then called the company together for prayer, and the wagons once again rolled toward the west. Throughout the day women sang and chatted cheerfully, often when the traveling was most trying. At night the men gathered for instructions and worship. There was often dancing by the light of camp fires and the rhythm of violins.

Day after day the wagon train moved over the prairie. Not always was there perfect peace and harmony, for occasionally quarrels were sparked by trigger-edged tempers. The offenders were then called before the elders for rebuke and punishment when it was deemed necessary. Why Richard Ballantyne was gentle by nature, he did not let his gentleness interfere with discipline. He kept a steady hand at the helm of his company.

The cycle of birth and death moved on. There were illnesses and accidents, too, such as the time when Sister Race threw a loaded rifle aside to make a bed in the wagon and caught the full blast of buckshot in her right arm when the weapon accidentally discharged.

When the company was camped at Chimney Rock, Jane Stevenson gave birth to a bouncing baby boy. Another woman, Carlina Abhalder, almost the same day stumbled in front of a wagon and both wheels passed over her body. She died in agony several days later. One man, defying orders to remain within the wagon circle because of the danger of marauding Indians, wandered out into the night and was lost for twenty-four hours. On one occasion a guard spied some Indians. He cocked his rifle, but his thumb slipped and the gun discharged a bullet into Sister Palmer's knee. Elizabeth Saunders, aged seventy, died in her sleep one night. She was too exhausted to see the Zion for which she had sacrificed everything. Another elderly woman, Regala Juj from Switzerland, was run over by a wagon causing serious fractures to both legs. On September 3rd a seventeen-month old baby died.

* * * *

Finally the company camped for the last time. Salt Lake Valley now was only a few hours away. Then at dusk the Nauvoo Brass Band on horseback burst into the encampment playing such tunes as "Home, Sweet Home" and "Yankee Doodle." The arrival of the immigrants had been anticipated, and they were met with a welcoming committee.

Early the next morning Huldah drove out to meet Richard in Brigham Young's carriage with her oldest boy, Richard Alando. When she saw the lean Scot, his face burned and rough from the wind and sun and riding as proudly as a general at the head of his troops, she released the suppressed feelings of three years of loneliness and destitution.

As soon as he saw Huldah, Richard broke away from the company and rode to the side of his wife and son. He crushed them to him. He saw at a glance that his sacrifices had been no greater than those of his wife. While she had tried in every way to disguise her poverty, he noticed that she was thinner and tired. Her clothing was worn, and there were hollows under her large black eyes. (And his heart warmed with tenderness for her. He was also amazed at the growing son who stood before him. The baby he had carried in his memory was no more.

It was September 25, 1855, when Richard Ballantyne riding his white horse brought his company into the Public Square at Salt Lake City. Here George A. Smith greeted him and said, "You have traveled around the world without purse or scrip and you have come home with a band of music and flags flying."

As the company encamped on Public Square, President Young remarked, "There's order in that company."

Then Daniel H. Wells of the First Presidency congratulated Richard and said, "You have brought this company over the plains ten per cent better than any other company. Yes," ye added thoughtfully, "Ten per cent better in every respect."

Chapter 11 - A Question of Wives

The picture of Salt Lake City that Richard Ballantyne had carried in his mind for the past three years was vastly different from the scene he viewed as he descended once more into the valley that September in 1855. Immigrants had pushed the boundaries of the settlement outward. The rough shacks, lean-tos, tents, and covered wagons used as homes were rapidly being replaced by houses of sturdier construction. The cornerstone of the temple had been laid. Trees were being imported and transplanted throughout the city in an effort to make a garden in the desert. Well-planned fields with irrigation ditches stood where sagebrush once covered the land. There were stores and shops springing up in the business center. One could feel, as well as see, the spirit of enterprise and industry in the Latter-day Saint capitol.

When Richard made his report to President Brigham Young on the results of his mission, the Church leader welcomed him warmly and talked at great length about the hardships and trials of the people during the past several years. Finally he said, "The Saints here need preaching to more than the world, and I want you to go among them and preach the gospel of repentance and tell them the laborer is worthy of his reward."

The weary Scotsman was stunned. It had been nine years since he left Nauvoo, and except for the little corn and potatoes he had grown at Winter Quarters he had yet to raise his first successful crop. Now he was called to continue his missionary labors.

Then President Young dropped the second bombshell. "You have been faithful, Brother Ballantyne, and now you may have two more wives."

Now Richard had never thought seriously of having more than one family. After all he had all he could do to get back on his feet and support the wife and family he already had. The thought of multiplying that problem caused him some apprehension. Then there were always the complications of trying to manage more than one woman. He was reminded how Huldah had often proved more than a match for his wits. It would call for the profoundest wisdom and resourcefulness, which he wondered if he possessed. He left Brigham Young's office reeling under the shock he had received, and one question kept pounding in his mind. How was he to explain the proposition to his wife?

One evening he discussed the subject with Huldah. Her reaction was not what he expected. She lapsed into a painful silence. She faced a dilemma. It was a question whether she should reject the counsel President Young had given her husband, or whether she could willingly share her man with other women. After thoughtful deliberation Huldah decided on the latter alternative. She believed it was God's will.

It was now a matter for Richard to find a second wife. There were many fine single women, but to choose one who would fit into his family was difficult. Finally he selected a twenty-seven year old English woman who had been in his company across the plains from St. Louis. Her name was Mary Pearce. There were many things about her he liked. She was quick, open-faced, frank, keen-eyed, and resourceful. He liked her energetic nature and determined courage. Her hair was dark brown. She had wide hazel eyes and regular features strengthened by a Grecian nose. She was approaching the spinster age, and although attractive she might never have married.

Mary Pearce was a native of London and the daughter of a boilermaker for the large ocean liners. She was second in a family of ten children. Her parents, Edward and Elizabeth Bennett Pearce, were poor; and the children were required to learn a trade. Mary chose dressmaking, and during the cholera epidemic in London in the 1840s she went from home to home making mourning clothes for the families who had lost someone from the disease.

On her way to her Methodist Church one Sunday morning, Mary's attention was attracted by a handbill advertising a meeting of the Latter-day Saints. She stopped, read it, hesitated, read it again, and then resolutely turned back to satisfy her curiosity about this strange religion of which she had heard so much. The new faith fascinated her. After careful investigation she was baptized in the River Thames in February 1849 in a hole cut through the ice, and became a member of the Limehouse Branch.

Mary was never one to pass up a challenge, and on the morning of her departure a group of friends dared her to sing without breaking into tears a new song recently published in the Millennial Star, "My Native Land, I Love Thee." But she stood on the deck and sang without a tremor. As she sailed away the crowd cheered and waved their handkerchiefs. Like so many thousands of that day she left her home and country and struck out for a strange land and an unknown life ahead. She became a member of Edward Stevenson's company which consisted of 431 persons, and the sailing vessel Chimparozo carried them to the New World. On April 17, 1855, the immigrants arrived in Philadelphia.

As she was an expert seamstress, she spent much of her time sewing tents and wagon covers for the journey over the pains. At Mormon Grove her spirited nature led her into trouble. A young man, who had discovered that Mary was fond of horseback riding, induced her to ride a flighty animal which she later learned was blind. As she rode up a nearby hill, she turned to answer a shout from some of the young people in the camp. At that moment her horse nearly ran over an old man walking from the other direction. To prevent an accident she gave the rein a sudden jerk which caused the horse to rear and fall with her. Had the horse been able to see, he would no doubt have avoided the man. Mary was severely injured, but she soon recovered without any noticeable impairment of her courage.

She crossed the plains in Richard Ballantyne's company. On the way the prairies cholera broke out in one of the companies a short distance ahead. The mortality was heavy, and the company sent an urgent appeal to Captain Ballantyne for some additional teamsters. After making it a matter of earnest prayer, he sent Edward Stevenson to them with the message that he could spare no teamsters but if they would accept Elder Stevenson as their leader he promised them in the name of the Lord that there would be no more cholera. Elder Stevenson took charge of the company, and the cholera epidemic disappeared.There was an orphan child, whose parents had died on the plains. His guardian was so irresponsible and neglected him so shamefully that Mary one day found the little boy nearly naked and half-starved. She took the youngster into her wagon, fed him, and cut up some of her dresses to clothe him. She took care of him until the company reached Utah, where he was claimed by relatives. It was like giving up her own child.

Another exciting adventure resulted from her eagerness to take a dare. At Devil's Gate on the Sweetwater, some young men and women decided to pass through the chasm instead of going around with the rest of the company. But the swift mountain stream and formidable cliffs soon forced them to turn back, that is all except the plucky English woman. She was determined to let nothing like a chasm stop her, and so she continued her perilous way until she came to a high over-jutting rock. Looking about she was dismayed to find that she could not go forward and dared not go back. At that instant a strange man suddenly appeared, lifted her down and told her the train was a short distance ahead, and then mysteriously disappeared. She was fond of telling this story to her children years later.

When she finally reached the Great Salt Lake Valley, the Stevensons took her into their home and made her forget her loneliness. She immediately threw her energies into the task of building a Zion. Her small, slender figure was often seen at the bedside of an afflicted woman or child. Her sewing skill was frequently employed for the Relief Society, and she was not one to neglect opportunities for leadership and development. Once she had accepted the new faith, she never wavered in her loyalty and defense of it. Often in the severest hardships and discouragements, when others weakened under the pressure, she would firmly exclaim, "But, for all that, the Gospel is true."

After his marriage to Mary Pearce, Richard Ballantyne tackled his preaching assignment among his own people with vigor and enthusiasm. It was a period which became known as "The Reformation." It was a time of moral and religious retrenchment. The Latter-day Saints had been driven beyond the confines of civilization to wander as pilgrims in the desert, to live in tents, in dugouts, and in covered wagons. They were separated from the refinements of home; and their daily associates were the immigrant, the mountaineer, and the Indian. Under these conditions many had become careless and indifferent and neglected such things as order and cleanliness. Some had retrogressed spiritually. The leaders of the Church realized that environment is a powerful force for either good or evil in the lives of men and women.

During this time Richard and his companion, Joseph W. Johnson, visited the homes of their people. They held special meetings, taught repentance, instructed the members to keep themselves and their houses clean, reorganized the wards where the priesthood were derelict in their duties, and counseled with the ward leaders. Sometimes it was necessary to discipline individuals who were guilty of serious sins. While punishment could be severe, the elders tried to mix a generous potion of kindness and mercy with it. Within a short time the condition of the people showed marked spiritual and material improvement.

His journal entry is typical of the period.

In the evening I attended meeting in the Fifteenth Ward. The people were eager to hear the word of the Lord and we taught them the principles of cleanliness in their habitations, in their clothing, in their bodies, and in their hearts, and the necessity of their thus sanctifying themselves, and of making restitution to each other, and confession, that the Holy Ghost may begin to dwell with the people. . .

In the early part of 1856, he went further than mere preaching and instructing. He organized the first Sunday School of the Fifteenth Ward. He was deeply concerned over the spiritual education of the children, and he feared that the boys and girls were being seriously neglected in the rough and ready existence.

During these months the weather was vicious. It was long remembered as "the hard winter" in Utah. During the preceding summer the crickets had eaten a large portion of the crops, and the Saints were faced with a critical food shortage and one of the coldest winters in years. To make matters worse thousands of cattle and sheep died on the ranges from the cold and the snow, and converts were pouring in from the nations of the world.

[Richard wrote:]

But notwithstanding this adverse condition . . . a more than usually urgent call was made upon them to gather the poor from the nations. Teams, cattle, land, and anything that could be used as well as money were solicited from the Saints; and the Spirit said to me, "They have taken your coat, give your cloak also." By this I understood my house, and the next morning I went and deeded it over to President Young to gather the poor. Thus I was left without a house, though my family still occupied it till we got another.

As if it were not enough to travel around the globe for three years without purse and scrip, leaving his family destitute and entirely upon their own resources; as if it were not enough to return home to face a severe winter after taking upon himself the responsibilities of another family and an unpaid full-time job of preaching among his own people; he still put the calls of the Church before every personal consideration and gave away perhaps his most cherished possession, his home, to relieve the homeless and distressed!

Then on March 6, 1857, came the third feminine influence in his life. Like the faithful Latter-day Saint he was, Richard accepted Brigham Young's suggestion and married his third wife. When he went to Huldah the second time and awkwardly explained his duty to marry again, he was astonished at how quickly she gave her permission. It might have been that the first Mrs. Ballantyne had by now resigned herself to sharing a man with other good women for the sake of the Church. If she resisted the idea, she disguised it remarkable well; and Richard with a revival of courage went to his second wife, Mary, for clearance.

Here it was a different story. Mary was not quite sure that a third marriage was necessary. After all two growing families should ordinarily be enough for any man. Why should he want a third? It was a crucial test of Richard's salesmanship, but he rose to the occasion and brought all of his powers of eloquence into play. Of course he did not want to marry without the wholehearted approval of his two wives. That was the rule of the Church. He merely wished to comply with the desire of the President of the Church. He looked upon it as an obligation. It was true that another wife and family meant sacrifices. It meant added responsibility and hardship on the husband. It meant creating a situation that called forth the highest qualities of character and unselfishness, not only on the part of all of the wives, but also upon the head of the house. He felt that plural marriage meant posterity, an increase which brought the blessings of exaltation and glory in the afterlife. It was good for the Church. It was good for his other two families. It was good for the women who could marry honorable men, and for the husband who would grow in wisdom and strength under the responsibilities of his families.

Mary felt herself giving way under the overwhelming weight of his argument. She agreed, but wanted it understood that she expected fair and impartial treat6ment for all the women. There could be no favoritism. And so with a mind awakened to the mammoth responsibilities that lay before him, Richard married blonde and buxom Caroline Albertine Sanderson.

In his third wife Richard found a woman who immediately won the love and admiration of his other wives and children, for Caroline was a strong-bodied Norwegian who combined rare qualities of sturdiness and courage with a sweet and gentle personality. She was born in Onson, Norway. She joined the Church as a young girl and had early felt the wrath of mobs and the hatred of villagers who had formerly been her friends.

When Caroline told her village priest of her baptism, the cleric was so enraged that he summoned the police had had the elders thrown into prison. There the missionaries languished all winter, their only consolation being the free board and room so ungraciously provided by the indignant citizenry of Onson.

Now Father Sanderson was used to unexpected and dramatic moves on the part of his only daughter, but he was hardly prepared for anything as unexpected and dramatic as her conversion to the strange faith of which people spoke in hushed tones. But he was a good father a well as a hard-bitten seaman, and he immediately posted a guard outside his house to hold off a mob of some two hundred irate villagers who gathered to demand the whereabouts of his offspring and her spiritual advisors. The firm warnings of the sea captain dampened their enthusiasm. They dared not proceed against him, and after lingering until four in the morning the mob finally disbanded and returned to the privacy of their own homes.

Captain Sanderson was not quite convinced of the wisdom of his daughter's decision, but he calculated that anything that was good enough for his daughter had his permission. When Caroline slipped into the house, after hiding outside until the welcoming committee dispersed, he demanded an explanation; and she told him the story of her new religion.

Father Sanderson was a devout man, but he claimed he was too devout to forsake his Lutheran Church for the call of a distant prophet. He never joined the Latter-day Saints, but he gave his blessing to his wife and daughter and permitted them to travel to Utah without him. With heartbreak and disappointment Caroline and her mother sailed into the North Sea for their Zion, praying that they had done the right thing.

The North Sea tried in every way to discourage them. It heaved and bucked and turned and tossed without respite. Three times the ship turned back to port. It seemed as if it would never get beyond a point midway in the sea. Then one day the leader of the four hundred converts called a meeting and said, "We are all fasting, let us pray." He prayed for calm waters, and the wind suddenly abated. By this time the ship had exhausted its coal supply and had to unfurl its sails. It arrived at Hull, England without further difficulty.

From Liverpool the company sailed to New Orleans, and from there to Fort Leavenworth where they remained until June 1855. Then cholera swept through the camp claiming four or five lives each day. Caroline later testified that Elder Erastus Snow "rebuked the Destroyer and said from that time all would be healed and it was fulfilled to the letter."

Caroline early acquired a burning faith in the power of healing. When her mother was gravely ill, a missionary laid his hands on her head and said, "In the name of the Lord thou shalt be healed." Her mother seemed to be restored to full health almost instantly.

On June 14 the wagon train started across the plains. It was a dusty, hot, and exhausting trek; and Caroline walked almost the entire distance. At Salt Lake City, when the company arrived September 7, she received one of the great shocks of her life. Never had she seen a place of such poverty and destitution. It was a barren and alkaline desert. She almost wept for the green landscape, the glistening fjords, and the timbered hills of her homeland. And to add to the barrenness and tragedy the crickets had destroyed most of the crops.

In order to make a living she wove and sewed with her mother and grandmother for one dollar a week. Flour was fourteen dollars a hundred pounds. They rationed themselves to one biscuit a meal; and she did not find the grass, roots, and weeds very palatable. [She later said:]

I will never forget one day I had been working unusually hard and came home tired and hungry. . . . I ate my biscuit ravenously and it made me so sick I threw it up. I cried, for it left me hungrier than before I ate. My grandmother said she was not feeling like eating that day and insisted on my eating part of hers. It looked as if we would starve and President Brigham Young told us to eat roots, weeds, thistles, etc. and that they would be blessed until the grain came, after which they would be poisoned. This prophecy was verified, for some who had learned to like them continued using them and became very sick, near unto death.

In the autumn of 1856 Caroline and her mother, like Ruth and Naomi of old, gleaned in the fields and earned twenty-five bushels of wheat which sustained them through the winter. A little more than a year before they had the protection and comfort of a well-provided home in Norway. Now, because of an unpopular conviction which offered much spiritually but nothing materially, they were reduced to the most trying poverty.

After he had married Caroline and was planning to build separate homes for his families, Richard watched anxiously the trend of events in Washington, D. C. In the East the distant skies grew more overcast. The storms were again gathering, and again he felt that he stood on the edge of an abyss.((

Chapter XII - And Again Flight

When He was called by President Brigham Young to join the Salmon River Expedition, Richard Ballantyne faced a dilemma. Spring was approaching, and besides the plowing and planting many other things had to be done. It meant he would have to work doubly hard to prepare for the trip. He was disturbed, and thoughts were running fast through his mind. Who would provide for his wives and children while was away? Could they manage the farm until he returned? As if in answer to his prayer, a neighbor came to the rescue and offered not only to help out with the chores but also to supply the "wood, flour, shoes, and groceries" for his family until he came back.

Richard was now thirty-nine, an age when most men felt settled. Yet he had no such comfortable feeling. Since he had returned from India, his feet had never quite stopped itching for new places and experiences. He had a restless spirit which prodded him to reach out for new horizons from time to time, and in a way he welcomed the opportunity to see the settlements to the north. He believed a change would do him good. But there was also the problem of transportation. He had no wagon strong enough to stand the rough trip and it was not until a day or two before the expedition was to leave that his solution came in the shape of Bates Noble. Bates had planned to take his wife with him on the journey but changed his mind at the last minute and offered to take Richard instead. And so on April 26, 1857, in Bates' carriage, they drove to the banks of the Bear River. There they met one hundred men, fifteen women, and fifty-three wagons and carriages with an average of three horses or mules each. Directing the company were Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Daniel H. Wells, Orson Hyde, and Franklin D. Richards.

The expedition set out for the Salmon River country traveling up the Malad Valley. With the eye of a farmer, Richard noted that it was "very fertile, good land." After two days the party reached the head of the valley where a large spring boiled out of the earth. Here they camped and sang hymns at night around the campfire. Groups also gathered around Brigham Young and the other leaders to discuss points of doctrine.

Early the next day the wagon train crawled over a rough mountain into Bannock Valley, so named because it was inhabited by the Bannock Indian tribe. The company moved down this narrow valley, and two days later a broad desert plain gouged deeply by the treacherous Snake River opened before them.

Then came a dangerous project. The expedition had brought two boats lashed to the wagons. Now was the time to put these boats into use in crossing the river. A relatively quiet and shallow place was found, but still the water whirled and slashed its way down the course. A wharf was next built and shallow place was found, but still the water whirled and slashed its way down the course. A wharf was next built straight out from the bank. Then wagons and provisions were loaded on the boats and ferried across the stream, careening perilously at times in the eddies and currents. The men unharnessed the horses and swam them over, the riders arriving on the other side thoroughly soaked and exhausted. Brigham Young organized and directed the operation with all the skill he had acquired from his years of conquering the American West, and the company reached the other side without so much as losing a pot or pan.

After following the winding track of the Snake River for two more days, the party reached the shores of Muddy Lake. Then they put twenty-one miles of dreary desert behind them to arrive at Spring Creek. From there they pushed on until they came in sight of Salmon River and Fort Limhi, which had been built by Latter-day Saint missionaries living among the Indians. The journey had been made in good time. President Young immediately won the friendship of the Indians by giving them blankets, food, and trinkets.

Fort Limhi consisted of twelve houses, forty or fifty men, and one woman. Outside the well-built stockade, which enclosed about sixteen rods, a few wigwams had been pitched by friendly redskins. The Saints were cultivating about three hundred acres of land, one-third of which was in wheat. Here Brigham Young and the apostles preached to the people, telling them, among other things, that the Church did not forbid marriage with Indians.

[Richard wrote:]

An Indian chief died the same afternoon we arrived at the fort. . . . He had three wives, who made great lamentation, cut their legs and ears, and tore their hair; killed some of the chief's best horses, burnt his lodge, destroyed cooking utensils, and made themselves very unhappy and uncomfortable by rendering themselves houseless and destitute. Next morning the body was buried in a grave dug by our brethren, wrapped in a buffalo robe with his bows and arrows. Formerly these Bannock Indians had been in the habit of throwing their dead into the river; but the elders have taught them otherwise. The dedicatory prayer for the fort and surrounding rivers, hills and valleys was offered by President Heber C. Kimball.

On May 13 the expedition started homeward. The return trip was uneventful, and on the evening of the 24th camp was made on the Bear River. The following day at Brigham City they were treated to a "sumptuous breakfast which was prepared for our whole party by the brethren and sisters of Box Elder under the direction of Apostle Lorenzo Snow."

It was May 265 when the company entered the Great Salt Lake City, after an absence of thirty-three days. It was the end of a 763 mile trek over country mostly desert and uninhabited except for wandering Indians.

Upon his return from Salmon River, Richard Ballantyne contracted to build seven miles of board fence for President Young to enclose his hay fields and pasture. The price for building it was one dollar a rod with material and team furnished. This work stretched through the summer and was finally completed with a much-needed profit to Richard at a time when he and his family were almost destitute.

During the summer he also leased twenty acres of farm land from a "Brother Iveins," who furnished the "team, tools, feed, and seed, and pays half the expense of threshing and gets one half the crop in the half bushel."

Just at the time when Richard was beginning to believe he was making headway toward building security for himself and his family, the storm clouds of persecution were again gathering in the East. Word came that the United States Government was sending an army to subdue the Latter-day Saints.

[Richard recorded:]

Today, this being Sunday, the 16th of August," Richard recorded, "in consequence of the United States army having on the way twenty-five hundred troops for this place, Brother Brigham declared that they never should be suffered to enter into this valley to establish themselves here. He said he never would submit to it because it is the wish of our enemies to destroy the organization of the kingdom of God from the earth; and he required the people if they felt as he did and were willing to burn their houses, their fences, their mills, leaving the valley desolate and flee with him to the mountains, they would manifest it by holding up both hands. The whole congregation gladly held up their hands as he did, and felt as though the time had come for us to be a free people. President Young said since he had come to this conclusion, peace and joy filled his mind, and he had the utmost assurance that the Lord would be with us to fight our battles; for thus saith the Lord, "I will be with you and help you, and will fight your battles." The people were again counseled to lay up grain for a seven years' siege, and to cache it where no one would know where to find it.

In the spring of 1858 the vote of the Church was put to the test. For two years matters had been growing worse. Corrupt government officials, the malicious spreading of falsehoods, and conspiracy against Brigham Young were finally crowned by an outrage committed by the Federal government. Orders were issued by President James Buchanan for the formation of an army to march to Utah. It was a virtual declaration of war by a state against one of its own political subdivisions. It was a blundering and stupid move, staining the record of an otherwise conscientious leader.

When the news came that Johnston's Army was on the outskirts of Utah and that it was time to retreat, Richard Ballantyne and his three families prepared to leave their home. He loaded his old wagons with necessary articles of furniture, provisions, bedding, and the few cherished possessions he could not leave to the hands of a plundering army. As moving was nothing new to him, he proceeded calmly and efficiently. Then with hundreds of other Saints he headed south, driving his cows alongside his wagons. Guards were left with orders to burn the city in the event the troops entered with hostile intentions. Some of the refugees halted at Provo, others at Spanish Fork and points along the way; but the flight of the Ballantynes continued until they reached Nephi.

In the year 1858 Nephi was a collection of a few scattered farms. It was a settlement where the rifle was close at hand when food did not purchase the goodwill of the redskins. Its inhabitants were hardy, resolute, and God-fearing pioneers who had known other worlds of comfort and civilization before being driven to this remote outpost; and under the direction of Brigham Young they colonized it.

Shouldering his axe and rifle Richard went into the mountains and hauled out wagon-loads of logs. With these logs he built a large cabin to house his three rapidly growing families. A corral was constructed for the horses and cows, and a sty for the pigs. Then he planted his crops.

After his families were settled in their new home, he turned his attention once again to his real passion in life: the teaching of boys and girls. No matter where he went, he always investigated the condition of children. To him the young people were the hope of his Church, and he felt that every effort should be4 made to fill their minds and hearts with the same faith and love for Christ that he himself had. And so he opened his home and held the first Sunday School in Nephi.

The Ballantynes became almost completely self-sufficient. They made their own clothing, built their own shelter, and produced their own food. The women even manufactured such daily necessities as lye and soap. To make lye they placed a trough half filled with straw and wood ashes on a frame called a leach, which consisted of four posts planted in the ground in the shape of a rectangle. The trough was hung between the posts with one end sloping downward so that a bucket could be placed underneath to catch the drippings. Water was then poured over this mixture of straw and ashes, and the drainings contained lye.

The wives also saved scraps of fat, rinds, and meat trimmings. From these scraps they made soap by heating lye water in a large kettle outside and adding the fat. After several hours of boiling the solution thickened into a jelly. When the tests showed it to be white and firm, the contents were poured into tubs to cool and harden. The soap was then cut into large bars. When hand soap was desired, a perfume of mint, lavender, or dried rose petals was added.

The days were busy. From dawn until dusk they worked. Richard spent most of his time in the fields tilling the soil. When he came in at night, he would take to his saw and hammer to make furniture, repair the house, build fences, and extend the physical assets of his domain. Morning and evening he milked and fed the cows, tended the pigs and horses, and cleaned the stables. He believed in cleanliness whether applied to animals or humans.

And a woman's work was endless. The wives were awake at the crack of dawn. They cleaned and scrubbed everything, including the children. They6 made candles from beef or mutton tallow; starch from the gratings of soaked and dried potatoes; and dyes from roots, leaves bark, weeds, vegetable peelings, and the cochineal bug. They ground their grain into flour. They carded and wove cloth from the wool of sheep. With all the ingenuity and resourcefulness of their sex they made a rough shack in the wilderness into a home.

At night by the light of candles the family would assemble around the fire and listen to Richard read verses from the Bible. He taught them the Gospel. Often he would reminisce about his experiences in India, and the children would sit with their chins in their hands and their wyes wide with excitement. When they snuggled in their beds, their dreams were of distant lands and strange people. Sometimes the discussion would concern their daily problems. Richard was one to take his family into partnership in his affairs, and he found that his wives were frequently shrewd in their counsel.

If occasionally disputes arose between members of the family, he acted as arbiter. He could be stern when the situation demanded it, but generally he was soft-spoken and understanding. He never let a quarrel develop too far before his rebuke brought it to a peaceful conclusion. He did not like to spank children, and so he talked it out with them and he used his hand sparingly. There was a surprising degree of harmony among his high-spirited wives. A sisterly affection seemed to exist with them. He was no more plagued by the whims and mysteries of his women than many men are with only one wife. He was seldom called upon to settle differences between them. The family was close-knit, and he kept a firm grip on the management of his house hold. The children played together and addressed the mothers of their brothers and sisters as Aunt Mary, Aunt Caroline, or Aunt Huldah.

In Nephi, Richard and his families enjoyed the first prosperity since he had joined the Church. He raised two good crops of wheat and vegetables. Here Mary and Caroline bore him two more children who were christened Mary Elizabeth and Thomas Henry. In the fall of 1859 they received news that the army had guaranteed peace to the Latter-day Saints, and so Richard Ballantyne again packed his wagons and returned to Salt Lake City and to his Sunday School in the Fourteenth Ward.

Chapter XIII - Eden

Huldah Meriah Ballantyne clung tightly to the creaky board seat and wandered if her husband were half gypsy. She watched his mobile face and for the first time in months saw the light-hearted spirit which had been so conspicuously absent. She heard him whistling some broken bars of an unrecognizable tune. She saw his bright eyes searching the passing mountains and fields with an intense light which she had rarely seen. Perhaps he was not half gypsy, but she knew of few men who had moved more often than he. How many homes had he lived in during the past twenty years? How many places had he seen? And now he was off on another adventure.

For a moment Richard seemed to have forgotten his wife. His hands relaxed on the reins, and the heavy covered wagon lumbered more slowly along the road. He was planning on ways and means of selling the merchandise he had bought from Thomas Box. He had yards of calico, ribbons, kitchenware, farm tools, flour, seeds, scarce spices, and ready-made clothing. Almost everything he had in the world was boxed and crated high in the back of his prairie schooner. Brother Brigham had told him that Ogden could use an honest merchant.

Five young Ballantynes were perched on top of the load, laughing wildly at the way Richard Alando teased Delecta Ann. He had tied her pigtails to a ring on the sideboard for lack of something better to do. She was furious and sputtered helplessly until she, too, joined the hilarity. Richard Alando was now nearly twelve. He was a long-shanked youngster with black hair and deep-set eyes. He had the build of his father but the soft-spoken patience of his mother. Delecta Ann was a quiet, energetic girl who was entering that mysterious age from which any personality might emerge. Their father glanced over his shoulder at the shrieking antics of his offspring and mentally measured them. He was glad that his children had come faster than money, for they were his life and his hope. It would indeed be strange if he, who loved boys and girls so much, did not have a goodly number himself.

On his trip to Ogden he was able to take only Huldah and her children with him. He left his other families in Salt Lake City until he found them a place to live.

Upon his arrival in Ogden Richard found temporary quarters for his family in a small cabin while he made arrangements for a store from which to market his stock of merchandise. He found what he wanted on the northwest corner of Washington and Twenty-fourth Streets. It was a fairly large building, and the rent was reasonable. Later he was to move to the southwest corner of the same streets. He spent hours cleaning, building shelves and racks, and displaying his goods. Huldah and the children were at his side lending their hands in the new project.

Then he opened for business. It was not long before he realized that he had a good thing. Sales boomed. Money rolled in at a rate he never dreamed possible. He was on the way to prosperity and financial security. His business reached as far north as Box Elder and Cache Counties, much of it consisting of barter with the farmers. Merchandise was exchanged for cattle and other livestock, eggs, produce, and grain; and the commodities were in turn converted into cash.

A year later President Brigham Young visited the city and spoke at a conference. Again the destiny of the Scotsman was to be changed by the will of this powerful leader. In denouncing exploitation and dishonesty among many business men he made this startling statement: "Unless the elders of the Church quit their merchandising they will go to hell."

Richard Ballantyne was upset. Had not Brigham Young pointed out to him the opportunities for an honest merchant in Ogden? It was true that some of the elders were forgetting their religious duties in a mad scramble to make their fortunes. It was also true that merchandising was taking on a bad savor because of certain shady practices which had aroused public indignation. Yes, there were reasons for Brother Brigham's admonition. Many merchants had found the temptations of profit too strong for their principles and had departed from the faith. But was he justified in giving up this lucrative business which was bringing him wealth and security for the first time in his live? He felt that he had conducted all of his dealings honestly. He had never charged customers an unreasonable profit; in fact he charged them on produce no more than he had paid the farmers for it. He chose to make his margin from the dry goods.

Richard pondered the problem. He discussed it with his wives. Finally, in order to clear the doubts from his mind, he drove to Salt Lake City and met with Brigham Young in his office. There he put the question bluntly to the head of the Church. Should he give up his store? Brigham Young was silent for a moment and then graciously replied, "Just do as you think best. Use your own judgment."

President Young had opened the door. If he wished, Richard could walk through it. It was an escape, but he felt in his heart that the wise old leader could see pitfalls ahead if he continued his merchandising. It was not that the business itself was bad. Rather there was always the danger that the ways of business might supersede the ways of religion, that strong men might lose sight of their responsibilities in the Church at a time when strong men were desperately needed. Perhaps these thoughts were behind the words. While Brigham Young gave no explanation, Richard needed none. He had made his decision.

I thought it better to quit than to go to hell," he concluded. "I had always found that it was best to obey counsel. I immediately resolved to close out my business, though it involved heavy sacrifice, and the blighting of my financial prospects."

Once before he had failed to follow the advice of a Church leader, when John Taylor advised him against moving outside of Nauvoo. It had nearly brought him ruin. He did not wish to risk another and perhaps greater catastrophe. He believed in Brigham Young, and he would take his chances with him.

Some critics might believe that Brigham Young asked too much. Yet there were impelling reasons which are not so readily apparent in our era of chain stores and mercantile marts. Brigham Young's concern for the Saints who were engaged in merchandising was born of the times. When we recall that the Church was then in the throes of a life or death battle, that persecution and oppression had dogged at its heels across the nation to the tops of the mountains, and that every effort was being made by its enemies to destroy its unity and leadership; it is no wonder that this remarkable leader feared apostasy and the softening of moral purpose as the most serious threat to the future of his people.

Brigham Young expressed this fear repeatedly in his sermons. He held that the Church could only be defeated from within, that weakness on the inside was far more deadly than any power on the outside. Here was the reason for his advising Sam Brannan and the California Saints to return to the Rocky Mountains. Here was the reason for his diverting the Utah Saints from the mines to the soil. He warned the elders against the evils of merchandising on the same ground. For a people laying the cornerstones of an empire the glitter of gold was their most insidious foe. And his position was justified by subsequent events. He could see what was happening to Sam Brannan and his followers. He could see what was happening to the Utah Saints who left the farms and trades to dig in the mines for easy wealth. He could see the changes taking place among the merchants, who were becoming so obsessed with money-making that they were daily apostatizing from the Church. Yes, what was the profit to a man if he gained the world and lost his soul?

Richard was pulled in two directions by his dilemma. One the one side he had the opportunity of a lifetime to make his fortune and build the financial security he craved. On the other side were the quicksands. To continue his enterprise would be to flaunt the advice of his spiritual leader. He would be gambling with his religion. To lose his religion was to jeopardize not only his spiritual future but also that of his wives and children. He looked over the families of other merchants who were adopting the practices of the less desirable "Gentiles" who were flooding into the territory. They were growing rich and fat. They were criticising their Church leaders. They were gradually drifting away, and their children were growing up in spiritual indifference. Richard Ballantyne had been through too much for his faith to abandon it now.

Sometime later D. H. Perry offered him the managership of a store in Ogden. Again the issue was raised. Richard sought the advice of John Taylor who echoed the warning of Brigham Young, and the Scotsman stood on his original decision.

And so Richard Ballantyne moved again, this time back to the soil.

In the fall of 1861 I succeeded in disposing of all my goods; and a little over a year afterwards, . . . in the depth of the winter, I moved over the mountain to Ogden Valley to cultivate my farm there. With me went my first wife and her children, my other wives and their children remaining in Ogden awhile longer."

His farm lay immediately west of the Eden townsite. When the Indian troubles came five years later, in 1866, the town of Eden was laid out; and the people from most of the farms moved together and built new homes in town. Richard Ballantyne was the guiding spirit in this development. He took lots on the west side of the town adjoining his farm. He acquired a whole block lying west of the public square, except about ten rods wide on the south side of the block owned by Josiah M. Ferrrin. On this block he built three houses for his three families.

The year 1867 was the year of the grasshoppers. One afternoon, when the barley was nearly ready for harvest, these insects came from the north in a black cloud rolling over the earth. They descended for the night and began eating the stalks just below the heads. Immediately the alarm was given. All hands turned out in an attempt to drive them on. Ropes were procured and dragged across the fields, but the crawling blanket would merely rise and settle down again to continue their destruction behind the farmers. By morning there was hardly a head of grain left standing. The stalks were cut down as if by a scythe.

When the sun came up, the grasshoppers flew into the air. They literally darkened the sun so that one could without difficulty look directly at it. Toward evening they again settled on the fields. They remained, laid their eggs, and died. When spring came, and about the time the grain was four inches high, the eggs hatched. The young insects once again poured fourth in myriads and began feeding on the green stalks. Men, women, and children were pressed into service in a frantic effort to exterminate the wiggling hordes; but, as it was said, for everyone killed a dozen came to the funeral. Trenches were dug in their path, for when once started I a given direction nothing could turn them. Bushels of "hoppers were trapped and buried. Streams of water were diverted through the fields, and thousands were drowned. Straw was scattered in their wake, and when loaded with them it was burn in the evening. But everything failed. They marched on and on, leaving the ground behind them as bare as a beaten highway, and no green thing grew where they had eaten.

For seven years this plague lasted! Not one single crop was raised! The Ballantynes rationed their short supply of food. Potatoes were mixed with flour in the making of bread, and flour for a family of twenty-three was not an insignificant item. Again Richard Ballantyne was destitute.

As Eden's most prominent Church and civic leader, Richard presided at church meetings and public functions. He served as justice of the peace, introduced irrigation by building the Wolf Creek canal, and with Samuel Ferrin and Armstead Moffett built a toll road into Wolf Creek Canyon from Ogden Valley, in the year 1868. Over the years he watched the population grow from a few families in 1861 to 1051 persons in 1870.

Richard Ballantyne also organized the Eden School District and helped build the first log schoolhouse. The educational system was financed entirely by a tuition fee of five cents a day for each student. Not only was he instrumental in founding the first school but was also one of its first teachers. His liking for the classroom seemed to be inherited, for the Ballantyne name was conspicuous among the teachers in Eden for almost twenty years. On the teacher roll were Richard Alando Ballantyne, Delecta Ballantyne, Mary E. Ballantyne, Josephine Ballantyne, Zechariah Ballantyne, and Edward H. Anderson. The latter was Richard's son-in-law.

In his journal he summarized his activities in Eden:

I had been there but a short time when I was appointed to preside over the Eden Ward in the valley, and remained in Eden Ward fourteen years until the spring of 1877, when I moved back to Ogden in consequence of having undertaken the publication of The Ogden Junction, a daily and semi-weekly newspaper. The company that owned the paper had failed and Apostle Richards, who then presided over the Weber Stake of Zion was anxious that I should take the paper and continue the publication.

I did this successfully for a little less than two years, when a movement was set on foot to publish a morning paper. The Junction was an evening paper. The promoters of this movement were anxious to have me unite with them in this enterprise, but for two reasons I declined: one was that a morning paper would not pay, and another that my health would not admit of night work. However, I made them an offer to sell them the entire plant. They accepted the offer and I retired from the newspaper business.

In Eden, and later in Ogden, Richard found his greatest happiness and satisfaction around his hearth. By now he was gray and weighted with the worries of making a living for an ever-increasing family. The restless spirit within him was giving way to the less spectacular by more comfortable role of an average Latter-day Saint wresting his daily bread from the earth and teaching his children the values of obedience and devotion to the Church. He was one of the thousands who was doing the spade-work and drudgery in rebuilding a shattered world for his people. He followed the direction of the General Authorities in almost every detail. In his family life he tried to produce God-fearing children who would always look to the Church for guidance and stand ready to serve as minutemen for their faith.

Nor did his worst fears of plural marriage come to pass. To him and his wives the relationship was a religious principle, and they accepted it on that basis and dut8ifully made the best of it. It required self-sacrifice, patience tact, love, and a strong religious bond. Without these qualities of character and the underlying spiritual leaven Richard Ballantyne could not have hoped for anything better than a home built over a seething volcano. He knew from the first that plural marriage without the sanctifying spirit of the Gospel was foredoomed to failure. As it was, there was every force at work to argue against the practice. A man who adopted plural marriage almost literally leaped from the frying-pan into the fire, and he did it knowing the consequences.

Consider for a moment his position. Why should he assume the tremendous responsibilities of rearing several large families? Why should he accept the very heavy financial load it involved? Why should he bring upon himself the extremely delicate and difficult problem of maintaining peace and harmony among his separate families? Why should he add more fuel to the already blazing fires of persecution and ostracism which surrounded him? Why should he willingly risk imprisonment, the stigma of having his families broken up by the courts, and the threat of having his children declared illegitimate? Surely no lustful man would risk so much. There is only one answer. The motive was religious. Richard Ballantyne lived in polygamy because he, like thousands of others, believed it was the will of God.

Richard's three wives were industrious and resourceful. Huldah was a quiet, efficient homemaker who would entertain her young children during the day by telling them stories or singing songs while she busied herself about the kitchen. Mary was a woman with overflowing energy; she had a shrewd business instinct, which found its outlet in a small store in Eden where she was also the town's first postmistress. Caroline was one of those women who were loved by nearly everyone, especially the children. They flocked around her and came to her with their problems and heartaches. She was also a selfless devoted nurse, whose talents were in almost constant demand at times of childbirth and disease. They were a compatible combination, and the three women understood each other and were reasonably happy.

Surrounded by his offspring Richard was invariably the proud parent. He was fond of each child; and as others were added, his chest would expand almost noticeably. He liked to talk with his sons and daughters about the values of character, his testimony of the Gospel, and their problems which seemed so small to him and so large to them. He dreamed with them of their futures, encouraging them along pursuits in which they were inclined; and each had a different bent. There was Richard Alando who liked almost too many things. There was handsome Joseph who wanted to be a musician. There was big Tom who eventually startled the family by being appointed United States Marshal, the first Latter-day Saint to hold that position in the territory. Then when the grandchildren came, Richard Ballantyne often took possession of them. He gave each a father's blessing. He inquired about their schoolwork, quizzing them about their arithmetic and English and history. He would give them geography lesions by describing his travels. They looked to him as a friend, for with the years he had become less stern and forbidding and more understanding and patient. When his grandchildren were away to school or had moved to other localities, he kept in touch with them by letter.

Richard liked to keep his children around him, and he insisted upon "home nights" when his three families would meet in his largest house and gather around the organ and concertina to sing. His voice would ring out above the others to such tunes as "Sweet By and By" and "Hard Times Come Again No More." Then they played games of all kinds. "Button, button, who's got the button?" and "Spin the Plate" were among the popular contests, during which Richard would sit on the sidelines and watch with delight the spirited competition among his children. There were also molasses pulls, corn poppings, picnics, and croquet. Sometimes programs were arranged by groups of the children; and his wives and sons and daughters would sing solos and duets, play the harmonica, tell stories, give readings, present short dramas, and read aloud from the scriptures.

There was no game that Richard Ballantyne enjoyed more than checkers. In the evenings he liked to draw one of his boys to the checkerboard, where he moved his pieces with the earnestness of a general deploying an army. Occasionally he found Zechariah and Thomas Henry more than a match for him, for they were apt pupils and learned their father's tricks faster than he had anticipated. Whenever they succeeded in dethroning the master, they would chuckle gleefully; and their father's eyes would twinkle, and he would rub his chin with his fingers and harmlessly exclaim, "Tut, tut, tut, you can't do that to me."

Life in the Ballantyne family, while simple in worldly comforts and conveniences, was gay with the voices of growing youngsters. There were spindle-legged boys and vivacious girls, and they were courting and being courted. They would bring their partners to the house for the all-important inspection by the father. Now there was one test to which Richard Ballantyne liked to put the eager young men who aspired for the hand of one of his pretty daughters. The unsuspecting candidate, who was usually unprepared for the ordeal, would readily accept an invitation to remain for supper, despite the lack of enthusiasm on the part of the young woman.

After the family had gathered around the table, Richard, ignoring the pleading eyes of his daughter, would say, "Let us have prayer."

They would kneel, including the happy visitor. Then without warning the host would turn to the aspirant and say, "Brother Tom will now lead us in prayer."

Such an announcement would generally be followed by a strained silence, during which the only sounds would be the pounding heartbeats of the honored guest and an embarrassed shifting among the girls, until "Brother Tom" would stammer out some remarks which might resemble a prayer. Unless the hapless male was a returned missionary, the chances were that he would thereafter make it a point to avoid the Ballantyne home near supper time, or else resolutely correct his glaring deficiency through diligent practice.

Christmas was always a festive holiday for the Ballantynes, even at times when there was no money. How ingenious were the women in their efforts to make the day joyful and exciting for the children! For weeks they saved and sewed and planned. They made the dolls they could not buy. They stitched aprons and dresses and knitted wool socks. Richard's wife, Mary, had not forgotten how to make the gentlemen's shirts with pleats and tailored cuffs and collars at which she was so adept in England, and she often worked long and late with her needle and thread to supply her husband with the white shirts he liked to wear. Then on Christmas Eve the stockings were hung over the fireplace; and if presents were scarce, the older girls would cut out pictures from catalogues and magazines of the gifts the children had reamed of but could not have, writing little humorous verses to take away the sting of disappointment. The children, they felt, would at least have some make-believe presents. In the stockings were added molasses or honey candy, cookies and doughnuts, and the inevitable large potato. Christmas, like the Sabbath and Easter, was also a day for sober thoughts. Verses from the Gospels of Matthew and Luke telling of the Christ-child were brought close to the heart. "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men." This theme mingled with the spirit of Saint Nick was not lost.

Notwithstanding his Presbyterian background and the grim history of his new religion, Richard Ballantyne had a sense of humor. There was a vein of mischief in him which occasionally tormented his family. On April Fool's Day he could play boyish pranks almost mercilessly. He could cause a near riot at the breakfast table by merely substituting salt for sugar or hiding the carefully collected eggs from his wives. He could send his children and wives on imaginary errands. He could fabricate fictitious messages from an ardent admirer to one of his dreamy-eyed daughters. Yet he learned that he who will give will also receive, and he became toe object of more than one practical joke returned by a victimized daughter or son.

Life was not often dull in those days. The daily humdrum was frequently broken by Indian treachery, searches by Federal officers seeking evidence of plural marriage, and battles to save crops from the insects or the elements. It was a period of emergencies. There were also other hazards which provided exciting experiences.

One morning Richard's daughter Annie was skipping through the log house with the bubbling spirit of her ten years. She came to the steps separating the two rooms and hopped up the first one. As she lifted her foot to enter the next room a large rattlesnake crawled from a crack between the boards and slithered between her legs. She leaped away screaming in terror. Her shrieks brought Huldah running into the room. The mother's eyes followed Annie's pointing finger to the bed post. There the snake had coiled itself and was buzzing its tail angrily. Without a moment's hesitation Huldah grabbed a garden spade, the nearest weapon at hand, and hacked the rattlesnake to death.

Tragedies never seemed to come singly. At the time he was losing his crops to the grasshoppers, Richard suffered a much greater loss. One night his son David Henry, who had never been strong, became very ill. Richard sent for the elders who administered to the twelve-year-old boy. Finally a doctor arrived. Despite every effort to save him, David died within a few days. Huldah was heartbroken, and Richard tried in vain to console her. Many times in the years to come he would find her alone, silently weeping over the death of her son.

Chapter XIV - This World of Affairs

The memory of man is short, and in some ways it is just as well. For the Civil War with its deep scars was now a thing of the past, and the shattered Union was once more being pieced back together. It was an era of forgetfulness, when men and women were pushing the black yesterdays out of their minds and thinking of the bright tomorrows. There was a healing balm in the swift and continuous flow of time.

In the wake of war and death came the mockery of prosperity. The long arm of America reached westward. It was the age of railroads. Strong steel bands were being strung over mountain passes, deserts, and plains to bind the sprawling continent into one nation. Over these bands of steel came the spirit of expansion and adventure, and people shocked by the cruel years of conflict were looking to greener pastures.

After the years of the grasshopper Richard's fortunes turned as he, too, was caught up in the whirl of expansion. He struck out into a new venture. This time he was offered a subcontract from Brigham Young who had won the award for building about one hundred miles of grade for the Union Pacific Railroad. Richard and his sons collected a crew of laborers and constructed a stretch at the lower end of Weber Valley near Mountain Green in 1868. The following year they took a larger contract for the Central Pacific Railroad at Dove Creek about one hundred miles west of Ogden. In these projects the Ballantynes were very successful, and their profits wiped out the losses from the seven lean years.

Soon afterwards, when the Utah Central was built between Salt Lake City and Ogden, Richard acquired another contract for the roadbeds on the bench west of Ogden. Again when the Utah and Northern line was under construction, he built some of the grade near Willard in Box Elder County. And so the name of Richard Ballantyne was prominent among the railroad contractors of his day.

Nor were the construction jobs without their problems. The weather could upset a timetable and cause serious losses. Efficient labor was often hard to find. Equipment was frequently impossible to replace. Then there were Indians who occasionally could not be pacified.

When he was building a section of the Oregon Short Line in Idaho, Richard has reason to worry about Indians. He had taken his wife Caroline and several of her children with him, and they were camped near the Bannock Indian Reservation. The red men were restless. They resented the advances of the white men, and it required the most delicate diplomacy to keep them friendly. But when the Indians came into possession of liquor, they were irresponsible and dangerous.

One afternoon Caroline and her grown daughter, Josephine, were alone in their tent. The two smaller children were playing outside, and the men were working about two miles on the other side of the mountain. As Caroline was putting away the dinner dishes, she suddenly heard the beating of hoofs and blood=chilling yells. She looked anxiously across the clearing and saw two half-naked Indians riding furiously toward the camp. They reined to a stop, dismounted, and began searching the tents and covered wagons. They were apparently making certain there were no men in the locality. Then they staggered into Caroline's tent laughing and shouting to each other, and both were drunk.

The Indians placed their guns beside the tent door and seated themselves on a couple of camp stools, one on each side of the tent with the large stove between them. The visitors each wore a huge knife.

Caroline moved quietly over to her improvised pantry. She wondered if food would buy their goodwill. Her hands picked out some bread, dried meat, and jam and set a hasty meal out on the table. The Indians looked at the food and laughed. They had other things on their minds. Their eyes turned on Josephine. After a moment they arose and moved toward her. With a face white with terror she somehow slipped past them and ran blindly down the road.

The Indians started after her, but then stopped undecidedly. They watched her for a few seconds, and then they saw a man coming down the mountain toward the camp. Without a word they returned to the table and devoured the meal which they had refused contemptuously a short time before.

The white man walking toward the camp was a teamster who had returned for no particular reason. He met the terrified girl, spoke a few reassuring words to her, and walked fearlessly toward the tent. He entered silently and sat down on the edge of a bed. With one eye on the newcomer the Indians gulped down the food, and after eating their fill they took their guns and fastened them to the horses. Then they leaped on their animals and started off at a gallop. When they had gone a short distance, one of the braves whirled his horse about and shouted to the white man in perfect English, "You can come now." With these words, the sense of which was not clear to either the women or the teamster, he dug his heels into the flanks of his mount and was off like the wind.

During these times Richard Ballantyne acquired some 480 acres of land near Riverdale in Weber County under the provisions of the Desert Land Act. The pr8ce was $1.25 an acre, but under the terms of the Act water must be brought to the land within three years. As the property was located on high ground, water would not be available without a canal being constructed. With the help of his sons and such men as Francis A. Brown, Joseph Lawson, W. W. Burton, and several other associates, Richard began the seemingly impossible task of building what was later to be known as the Davis and Weber County Canal. This canal originated with the Weber River above the mouth of Weber Canyon and followed the hillside sout6h of South Weber, Uintah, and Riverdale. It was to be ten feet wide at the bottom. It was a tremendous undertaking for so few men, and the steep hillsides and occasional land slides made the excavation extremely difficult. However, another group soon joined the project under the leadership of Bishop Christopher Layton of Kaysville and Feramorz Little of Salt Lake City. Finally the canal was completed, and its life-giving water transformed thousands of acres of dry and barren desert into some of the most productive farms in Utah.

Richard engaged in farming more out of necessity than inclination. Although at different times he followed a variety of occupations, he always kept a plot of earth to grow vegetables and fruit for his families. When he devoted his full time to the farm, he also planted wheat, barley, oats, molasses cane, and hay. At one time he had the finest dairy herd in Eden, the first purebred stock imported into Weber Valley. He also raised pigs and chickens, and tended beehives.

If he had not been so fond of fresh honey, Richard Ballantyne would probably have never put up with the bees; for he endured them only for the sake of his appetite. One day as he was gingerly finding his way among the hives, these buzzing insects circled around him in a most friendly manner and then suddenly descended upon him, swarming over his face and hands in clusters. Richard was frantic. Only his fear of turning their affection into wrath kept him from waving his hands wildly about his head. As he stood there helplessly debating the best way of putting distance between himself and his charges, one of his daughters observed his plight from the house. She immediately ran to the well and filled a bucket with cold water. Then she hurried to the side of her distressed parent and unceremoniously doused him from head to foot. Her method achieved the desired results, and he recovered from the chilling bath with a loud sputter and gratefully gasped, "Bless you, m'dear, bless you."

It was difficult in a busy and realistic frontier world filled with children and pioneering problems to ponder things of the spirit without distractions. During his many lonely days at sea while he was encircling the earth, Richards Ballantyne had acquired the habit of meditating in solitude, a time for thinking out the profound doctrines of his Church. The habit was a luxury in his spiritual life, a luxury he carried with him wherever he went. In Eden, after the early morning chores and breakfast, he would often disappear into the parlor, careful closing the door behind him, and there spend a portion of the morning by himself before he tackled the less enjoyable tasks on the farm.

When he was at Mary's home, he concentrated a little harder trying to shut out the noises from the other rooms; for it seemed that the iron kettles and pans banged louder than usual in her house, and at times he thought he could hear his spunky little wife muttering something about wanting to clean the parlor as her quick footsteps padded restlessly about the kitchen. Richard understood his energetic wife, and chuckled as he remembered her comment that it was hard to fathom a man who would take time to meditate when she could see so much to be done.

During the 1870s Richard Ballantyne dipped into politics. In this pursuit he was reasonably successful. He was elected Weber County Commissioner, and he also became a member of the Ogden City Council. His efforts were vigorously directed toward building schools, improving educational standards, and promoting public health facilities. He wanted to insure the best possible mental and physical health of the rising generations. Once again his deep interest in young people and their welfare became his primary concern, and shaped even his political career.

Through these years the agitation against plural marriage was mounting daily. With the election of the Liberal Party and the growing power of the "Gentiles" the conflict between the two divisions of the population was reaching a boiling point. Then came Federal legislation in the form of the Collum Bill, the Edmunds Bill, and the Edmunds-Tucker Law. While the Latter-day Saints fought these measures and appealed to the courts, they were defeated on almost every hand. Federal judges and marshals were determined to enforce the laws, and they hunted down hundreds of men and sentenced them to the penitentiary.

Richard Ballantyne lived constantly under the shadow of prison. He saw many of his friends rounded up and herded off to jail after speedy trials, during which efforts were made to have their wives testify against them. He was himself watched and pursued by officers. When his son Jedediah was married, neither he nor the bride's father dared to attend the wedding supper. Federal marshals were keeping them under surveillance.

His daughter Annie became the plural wife of Professor Louis F. Moench. When news of the marriage reached the officers, Annie was hounded night and day. For years she was driven from friend to friend seeking refuge. It was a relentless pursuit, and the distracted woman was unable to return to her own home or that of her father. She could only see her husband secretly.

One winter night found Annie alone in a barren, unfinished room huddled before a small stove. In her arms was a newly-born infant shaking with convulsions. The mother knew her baby was dying. A few neighbors had slipped in early in the day. But for fear of leading the Federal men to her, they dared to come only when there was no danger of detection. There was little that could be done for the child, but the frightened Annie still fought for his life. The dragging hours passed. Then came a hurried knock and the familiar warning, "The deputies are on their way here."

Annie was desperate. To remain meant that she would be taken prisoner and that her husband would inevitably be convicted of polygamy. Her only chance was to seek shelter with another neighbor. She awakened her three-year-old boy who had been sleeping near the stove and dressed him. Then she bundled up the baby as warmly as possible, holding him against her body, and once again fled into the bitter cold night. As she struggled through the snow toward the friend's home where she could find temporary safety, her baby died in her arms. And this tragedy did not end her troubles, for Annie was hunted like a wild animal until the adoption of the Manifesto, which ended the conflict on plural marriage.

In his evening years Richard Ballantyne still had an unfulfilled ambition. He wanted to unite his family in some kind of business. His opportunity came when Barnard White offered to sell his lumber firm in Ogden. After considerable negotiation the price was set. It was high, but so were the prices of everything in those boom years. With his sons he opened the lumber company. For eighteen months business was good, but Richard did not exert the measure of caution which had characterized all of his previous business dealings. Accounts receivable rose to unsafe levels. Credit was loosely granted. Management became diffused, and authority was not clearly defined. With its limited capital, the company further strained its financial position by purchasing a brickyard. Then in 1891 the boom collapsed, and it was followed by the panic of 1893.

The years from 1870 to the close of the nineteenth century were peculiar for the violent peaks of prosperity and the deep valleys of depression. It was truly an era of booms and busts. Each succeeding cycle seemed to be more extreme, and in 1893 the economic blows struck hard. Bread lines and soup kitchens sprang up to take care of the unemployed. Coxey's Army marched on Washington demanding relief from the government. Hundreds of banks and tens of thousands of individuals were bankrupt. It was like a terrible disease strangling the entire nation.

The Ballantyne Brothers Lumber Company was swallowed up in the national crisis. Its receivables became worthless pledges. Its inventory values had shrunk to only a fraction of the original cost, and sales dropped so low that the firm could no longer meet its obligations. When the spiral at last stopped, Richard Ballantyne had lost both of his homes and his company.

And so at the age of seventy-eight, like his father before him, he saw the wealth he had built up over many years swept away. He was now irreparably ruined. Too old to begin again he was thrown upon the mercies of his family. He had not even so much as a house to live in, and his health was poor. And he had yet another ordeal to bear. Mary, his active and plucky wife, became totally blind. And though her close needlework may have hastened the enveloping darkness, still she continued to work, and even learned to stitch without the aid of sight.

But with a still unquenched fire burning within him, Richard Ballantyne turned once again to his first love, the Sunday School, and resolved to devote the remainder of his days to rearing the child he had fathered more than forty years before.

Since he had organized the first Sunday School in the fourteenth Ward in Salt Lake City, he had created other similar organizations. He established the Sunday School in the Salt Lake Fifteenth Ward, the Nephi Ward, the Eden Ward, the Ogden Third Ward, and the Ogden Second Ward. While he was superintendent of the Weber Stake Sunday Schools, he directed the organizing program throughout his stake, and he was instrumental in the founding of many other schools. No matter what personal tragedies he suffered, he found happiness in this work. It almost seemed as if Providence had taken him by the arm and led him to the task to which he had dedicated himself.

We have seen that Richard Ballantyne was a product of his religion. As a Latter-day Saint, he was neither of the lofty nor the lowly of his Church. But his greatness, if we may be permitted to use that term, was the greatness of many unsung and forgotten men and women who were transformed by the gospel from ordinary individuals into souls aflame with the passion to serve God and build His kingdom.

His religious convictions came first, and everything of a material nature came afterwards. This rare faith withstood the severest tests; and it remained with him to the last. Not even a kidnapping, during which his life was in constant jeopardy; not even fifteen or more crop failures, which left his family hungry and destitute; not even his perilous journey around the globe without purse or scrip, which exposed him to cruel ostracism and dire poverty; not even the business disillusionment and final bankruptcy, which closed his active life in ruin and heartbreak; not one nor the combination of all these experiences was enough to shake the testimony in the divinity of the Gospel and the authenticity of Joseph Smith's mission.

His steps were guided largely by three men. The Prophet was his spiritual leader, an emissary of God, whose every word was as a mandate to him. There was Brigham Young, whose indomitable will and practical vision filled him with drive and confidence. And John Taylor, his intimate friend and confidant, lent a personal warmth and understanding in many difficult crises. Under this varied leadership Richard Ballantyne grew in stature and experience for his role in forging the civilization of Utah.

Nor was his background vastly different from others of similar stamp. He lived in a tempestuous era when even the strongest were crushed by the overwhelming pressures of an expanding nation. He lived under a religious movement which required complete devotion and unlimited self-sacrifice for its survival. Although he was strong-willed and independent by nature, he pushed his own preferences aside and accepted wholeheartedly the direction of his Church leaders. How else could he and so many others have accomplished the miracle in the desert?

By modern minds he would be branded a zealot. Yet, who but a zealot could have done what he did? It takes such men to achieve the seemingly impossible. There are few pioneers who do not have zeal to a greater or lesser degree.

He knew prosperity and poverty, and each left its mark on him. In his final period of prosperity it appeared that he became hasty and careless in his business decisions, but the lure of wealth never blinded him spiritually. In poverty his strength and humility were even more apparent, and it was then that he rose to his greatest spiritual heights. When he was poor, his family was closer to him, working harder and more unitedly.

He was generous, magnificently so, as shown by the faithful care of his invalid brother, the unselfish sharing of his own limited supplies with the Saints at Winter Quarters, and deeding his home to the Church for the relief of needy immigrants. He was restless, perhaps a normal outgrowth of his turbulent existence, but more likely as a result of his impatient nature.

And so after more than fifty years in the Church, he was no wealthier in material things than when he was baptized. Yet he had passed through experiences which made him infinitely richer in character and faith. His legacy of spiritual achievements would far outlast any worldly gains he might have made.

Chapter XV - The Length and Shadow

When the Twentieth Century was only two years away, Richard Ballantyne was fighting to keep active. In the mornings he would pull himself out of bed, putter around the yard for awhile after breakfast, and then reluctantly return to his chair by the window short of breath and exhausted. He was now eighty-one. His hair was thick and white, his once straight shoulders bony and stooped. There were furrows down his cheeks and around his eyes and mouth, yet imprisoned in his feeble body was a still youthful spirit.

Because his tired eyes rebelled at much reading, vivid memories frequently occupied his mind. How often he looked back through the years and fondly remembered the adobe house which he had built for the first Sunday School in the Rocky Mountains. That was forty-nine years ago. It had been twenty-six years since he was appointed superintendent of the Sunday Schools in the Weber Stake, and in this work he had buried many of his personal problems.

When he was most discouraged, he had turned to Sunday School matters from which he would emerge strangely refreshed and quickened in spirit and drive. Then he was better able to meet the demands of his daily affairs. It seemed as if he had made his most productive contributions to the movement when the tides of fortune were flowing against him.

It pleased him to reflect on the success of this expanding institution. When he had held his first school, there were about thirty children. Now, he had been told, there were 116,703members enrolled throughout the Church, all in less than fifty years. And the membership was growing steadily.

There had been many changes. An organization, the Deseret Sunday School Union, had taken shape. Choral festivals and Salt Lake Tabernacle jubilees were regularly held, an outgrowth of the first musical festival he had sponsored in the Ogden Tabernacle in 1872. Thousands of children now attended these colorful events. They made simple speeches, sang songs, and were served rolls and lemonade. And the halls were garlanded with floral baskets and wreaths.

Over the years he had seen procedures in the Sunday Schools standardized. He had seen the enrollment increased through the efforts of special Sunday School missionaries working in the stakes. He had seen the quality of instruction improved as a result of a Normal Training Class for teachers held at the Brigham Young Academy. Under the vigorous leadership of the Sunday School General Board, which included such able men as Heber J. Grant and Karl G. Maeser, he had witnessed the publication of faith-promoting pamphlets, guide books, and lectures by Professor Maeser.

Since the songbook had been published, congregational singing had become even more popular. Annual conferences and conventions had tied the organizations together under a unified program. Records were being kept, and statistics compiled. There were systematic study courses outlined for every class, and printed questions and answers were in vogue.

The growth of the Sunday Schools also brought its financial problem. At first funds were raised through concerts, entertainments, and excursions. Finally the Nickel Fund was introduced, and then the Dime Fund. These later plans proved to be the solution, and from that time the Sunday Schools of the Church were supported by only a few cents from each member. It is doubtful if any similar organization was ever financed more efficiently.

Richard Ballantyne had early suggested that the Sacrament of the Lords Supper be administered in the Sunday Schools, and sometime later the idea was officially adopted at the request of Brigham Young. He was also active in developing suitable music for the children. He urged talented musicians to compose hymns to be used in the schools, and gifted composers and writers such as George Careless, Evan Stephens, and Ebenezer Beesley responded enthusiastically. His son, Joseph Ballantyne, later wrote such popular hymns as "Shine On," "Summer Time," and Christmas Cradle Song."

One of Richard Ballantyne's final triumphs was his organizing a Sunday School at the Utah School for the Deaf and Blind. On this occasion he was deeply moved when a sightless student read the scriptures in Braille. Never had Richard found a more ready acceptance of his program than he did among these handicapped people. He felt that he had lighted a lamp in their darkness, and he sensed keenly their gratitude and happiness.

Children were ever on his mind, and he fretted when he felt they were not receiving proper teaching.

If false doctrines are taught, they produce divisions. . . . If the children are fed chaff instead of wheat, they will not grow and thrive. . . . Skeptical teachings will produce skeptics. Speculative teachings only satisfy the vain and curious, but not the honest searcher after eternal truth. . . . The teacher who trifles with the precious hours of Sunday should be removed from his position.

Like a proud father he watched over the growing movement he had nurtured through the years. In a sense he became its spiritual advisor, and it pleased him when George Q. Cannon, George Goddard, Karl G. Maeser, and a host of other Sunday School leaders consulted him about major problems. When the Juvenile Instructor was published, he felt that his child had at last come of age. Frequently he was called upon to address conferences, and his remarks were filled with admonition and emphasis on the responsibilities of teachers.

I regard Sunday School work as a mechanic does a building. The master mechanic may and must have a correct idea of the plans and material to be used; but if he employs incompetent mechanics, he can never construct a perfect building. The foundation may be worthless for want of a competent mason; or, should the foundation be good, the superstructures may be crude, unsafe, and unsightly for want of honest and competent men to oversee and construct the building. And thus it is in regard to work in the Sunday School: those at the head should be honest and faithful and should have a perfect knowledge of the end to be sought, the best material to be used, the best methods to promote those ends, and how to obtain and use skillful and competent teachers.

There were also times when he took his Sunday School problems to bed with him. On one occasion he was

much exercised during the last night upon my bed in the study of how to teach so that the things taught may be fixed in the heart and bring forth fruit; and learned that the truth should first be fixed in the heart of the teacher. . . . How important then that the teacher should be in love with that which he teaches to others.

Once, when he was giving instructions to teachers, he said,

In the first place is the need of faith in the teacher. The value of this qualification is not sufficiently apparent; neither will it be till there is sufficient repentance. When there is sufficient repentance, there will be sufficient faith; and where there is sufficient faith, there will be sufficient testimony, and . . . power to reach the heart and turn it to righteousness will be given. . . . The stream will not reach higher than the fountain; neither will the work accomplished in the heart of the scholar reach higher than the work already accomplished in the heart of the teacher . . . Every teacher imparts more or less of his own character to the scholar.

Brightest of the memories of his last years was the celebration of his eightieth birthday. It was a crowning triumph to his career in the Sunday Schools. That day he rode down Washington Avenue in Ogden in a carriage followed by three thousand children and teachers„and four brass bands! The whole city paid homage to Richard Ballantyne. It was his day.

Then at Lester Park some six thousand admirers attended the gala program and gay picnic. Elder George Teasdale of the Council of the Twelve delivered a stirring sermon, during which he paused and laid his hands upon the Scotsman's aged head and "blessed him and his children's children to the last generation." There were quartets, community singing, duets, choruses, solos, and other musical numbers interspersed with short addresses by visiting guests. Elder Angus M. Cannon told how forty-eight years before Richard Ballantyne, as a young man of thirty-two, had come to him and invited him to Sunday School in a house which he had built with his own hands chiefly for that purpose.

When twenty-seven little girls with white dresses and blue ribbons across their shoulders each handed him a bouquet of flowers to represent a Weber County Sunday School, tears flowed down his wrinkled cheeks, and Richard was happy. He leaned on his cane and smiled through his wet eyes as he accepted the floral pieces. His heart was full, and his voice shook when he acknowledged the kindnesses of the children.Printed in both the Desert News and the Salt Lake Herald of August 27, 2897, are these excerpts of the report prepared by the Weber Stake Presidency on the occasion:

The greatest parade in the history of Ogden was held yesterday in honor of the 80th anniversary of Richard Ballantyne, Superintendent of the Sabbath Schools of this stake and founder of the Sabbath School system of the Church of Latter-day Saints. The procession was by actual measurement a few feet short of a mile in length and this measurement was taken when the ranks were in close marching order.

The front of the parade was almost at Lester Park on Twenty-fourth Street while yet the rear end was turning the corner from Grant into the same street and at this time there were two lines on Washington Avenue, caused by marching down to Twenty-fifth and counter marching back to Twenty-fourth.

There were people of all sizes and almost all ages in line. People marched who carried babies in their arms and some tiny toddlers wearied before the marching was done and were carried by sturdy teachers, parents or elder brothers.

The line was led by Marshall Thomas H. Ballantyne and his three aids, Fred Chambers, Peter Anderson and Heber Burton.

Then followed a carriage or two with Richard Ballantyne, the Presidency of the Stake and some prominent visitors, but for the most part the people walked.

No matter how high a man stands in business or social affairs, on yesterday, if he participated, he walked with his Sunday School as a teacher or pupil . . .

Four Brass Bands furnished music and the parade was divided into five divisions for convenience in formation and in getting located at the park.

A temporary stand was erected under the trees at the North end of the pavilion and a few hundred seats were provided; but for the most part the audience stood about on the two or three acres North of the stand. The opening prayer was made by David M. Cannon of St. George, President of the Temple, who was one of Superintendent Ballantyne's first pupils. Songs were given by the pupils of Huntsville and Plain City, and Angus M. Cannon of Salt Lake, President of that Stake of Zion, made a brief speech of congratulations to the audience and to Elder Ballantyne. He, too, was one of the first pupils of the veteran Superintendent. The speeches were all very brief none of them extending over five minutes.

Apostle George Teasdale spoke briefly and bestowed a fervent blessing on Superintendent Ballantyne, and expressed the good wishes of President George Q. Cannon, who was unable to attend.

L. F. Moench, who was master of ceremonies, presented to the veteran superintendent some resolutions done by him for the stake, in India ink. This Testimonial was an artistic piece of pen drawing . . . .

Superintendent Ballantyne replied with a few words of thanks and was visibly affected. But another surprise touched him even more deeply. This was when 27 little girls, each one representing a school, marched up to him with as many bouquets. The first made a brief speech of presentation in behalf of all, and then each laid the bouquet in the hand of the venerable leader and greeted him affectionately.

Superintendent George Goddard arose and designated Superintendent Ballantyne as 80, and himself as 80 "too" and the crowd keenly enjoyed the witticism. He said among other things that Elder Ballantyne had been honored by more innocence on this day than often falls to the lot of one man. He closed by singing "Our Lovely Deseret," the audience joining in the chorus. . . .

Superintendent Ballantyne said he would say little, but that he felt much. He had hoped that when he died his motives and his work would be appreciated, but it had come before his death, a thing he had not expected.

The closing song was furnished by the Hooper Sunday School, and President C. F. Middleton gave the benediction. Then the assembled thousands went each to the proper nook in the park and two hours were spent in general sociability. Several of the schools had tents on the ground and tables set up.

At about three o'clock the games began. Each precinct had prepared amusements for its own pupils which consisted of athletic tests and games for small prizes. Several hours were spent thus, nearly every bit of space on the ten acre park being used.

In the evening occurred the ball. The crush was really too great to be enjoyable and was getting well on toward midnight before dancing was indulged in with much comfort. However, the crowd was a jolly one and made the best of things. It was about one o'clock when the benediction was said and the celebration passed into history.

From that day Richard Ballantyne's strength gradually slipped away. The following year another amazing tribute was paid him. People had known that the old man was destitute, that he had lost all of his property and was compelled to live with his children. And so thousands of Sunday School members contributed dimes and nickels and pennies to build him a home. When the structure was completed, Elder George Q. Cannon, General Superintendent of the Sunday Schools, made a special trip from Salt Lake City and made a formal presentation of the small, neat cottage. It was here that Richard spent the last three months of his life.

Winter was approaching.

Late one afternoon Richard Ballantyne dozed in his chair with a heavy shawl over his shoulders. The fire crackled in the fireplace. A log slid down with a spray of sparks. The old man awoke with a start. Without rising he took the poker and jabbed the log back into the flame. The fire leaped forth like the image of the past.

As his eyes drooped once more, his mind pictured a sea of faces around him . . . Huldah . . . now dead . . . how lovely she had been when they were married . . . how calm, patient, soft-spoken . . . how seldom was she angry . . . how seldom was she jealous, even when one of his other wives might wrap him around a finger . . . or when he gave her crop of peaches to Mary . . . Peter, whom he had affectionately taken care of for fifty years . . . also dead . . . Brother Brigham, long since gone . . . this strong and determined man had molded his life at almost every turn. . . and places . . . Scotland, Nauvoo, California, India, the Pacific, the Atlantic, England, the Mississippi, the prairies, Utah . . . and events . . . the mobs, the kidnapping, the battle of Nauvoo, crop failures, his mission around the world, the Reformation, retreat to Nephi, Ogden, Eden . . . flights from Federal officers . . . his other wives, Mary and Caroline . . . still with him . . .

Mary awakened him. She was startled, for his breathing was heavy. She led him to his room and put him to bed. He was muttering something. She caught snatches of his words, "The crops are gone . . . crickets . . . ruined . . . too tired . . ."

Near his bed were pictures. Here was Richard, his first-born; and Joseph, who lived for music. Here was a photograph of himself surrounded by flowers, a bank of flowers, given to him by the Sunday School girls. There was the hand-carved Buddha presented to him when he left India.

For a few days he rallied. The blaze of youth once more lit his eyes. He talked of his plans for improving the teaching program in the Sunday Schools. He wanted to sit up and write some letters. Then he weakened again, and his breathing was more labored. The elders came. The doctor was called. But the sick body was worn out. On Tuesday, November 8, 1898, death quietly came to Richard Ballantyne.

Among the speakers at his funeral in the Ogden Tabernacle were President George Q. Cannon and Elder Franklin D. Richards of the Council of the Twelve Apostles. After the service a long procession followed his body to the Ogden City Cemetery. There he is buried.

Here was a strange man. By nature he was gentle and sensitive, yet restless. As a young man he was stern and austere; as an old man, understanding and tender. His world was broad, ranging from the peaceful escape in books to the active and rough existence on the frontier. He was tossed about by the forces of destiny into a life of adventure and hazard.

Yet he was early governed by two burning passions„love of God and love of children. l Everything in life was subordinated to these two fires within him. His was not just another faith, another religion, it was more. It was a faith which penetrated to the marrow of his bones. In all the many trials and perils through which he passed, his convictions never wavered. He might, like Job, have said, "Though He slay me, yet will I trust in Him."

He was many-sided. In turn he had been a farmer, baker, miller, carriage manufacturer, merchant, alderman, publisher, contractor, lumber dealer, and teacher. But of all his vocations, teaching was nearest to his heart. It was in keeping with his gentle and reflective nature.

Like the ancient rabbi he believed that the greatest teaching experience came from rearing a family. With his own twenty-two children, each with a challenging personality, Richard learned the ways of youth.

By his first wife, Huldah, there were nine children: Richard Alando, Delecta Annie Jane, David Henry, Meriah Cedenia, John Taylor, Annie, Roseltha, Isabella, and Joseph. Mary Pearce had born three boys and three girls: Zechariah, Mary Elizabeth, Jane Susannah, James Edward, Eliza Ann, and Heber Charles. His youngest wife, Caroline was the mother of four girls and three boys: Thomas Henry, Caroline Josephine, Bertha Matilda, Catherine Mena, Jedediah, Brigham, and Laura Elizabeth.

A year after his death the Salt Lake Tabernacle was filled to overflowing. It was the General Jubilee Celebration commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the Sunday Schools of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Portraits of the Prophet Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, Brigham Young, John Taylor, Wilford Woodruff, and Lorenzo Snow faced the huge audience of Sunday School workers. There was also a heroic bust portrait of Richard Ballantyne painted by John Hafen.

The story of the first Sunday School was told. The names of the known class members were read, and the few survivors were introduced. There was enthusiasm for the progress which had been made and hope for a still greater organization in years to come. Membership would someday be a half million, a million, and more. Difficulties would be encountered, but those difficulties would not be insurmountable.

Five years before his death Richard Ballantyne had written this prophetic preview:

But those times are now past, and I believe never to return. A brighter day is now awaiting, but it will have its dangers. As wealth flows into the hands of the Church, and with it learning and refinement, pride is apt to enter the hearts of the children of Zion as it entered the hearts of the Nephites. God hath signified by his servant that the day to favor Zion has come. The powers of the heavens are to be exerted in a way they never were before. The time for the uplifting of Zion has come. Kings and rulers will favor her. Her beauty and righteousness are beginning to appear in the world. She will not be looked upon as she has been in the past. The shadows are passing away, and the light is breaking in upon us.

Sonne, Conrad B. Knight of the Kingdom, Deseret Book, 1949, with quotations from Richard Ballantyne's journal. Edited by Great-Great Granddaughter, Mary Jeanne Workman Jenness, in 2005.]

Insert in book:

This book is the fulfillment of the boyhood dream of the author, Conway, the great grandson of Richard Ballantyne.

Bits of genealogy and intimate glimpses of family life were gleaned by his granddaughter, Delecta Ballantyne Burton.

Illustrations throughout the book are from the pen of Marianna Crookston Israelson, a great granddaughter.

The inside cover showing his travels was designed by the wife of the author, Elaine W. Sonne, and the jacket of the book is the work of the artist Arnold Freiberg.